This month’s By The Numbers magazine column discusses areas with the most governing entities, and the associated challenges that numerous jurisdictional boundaries pose for public officials.

For the most part, localities have avoided mergers, while others opted to consolidate services in recent years. The total number of local governments across the country – including special districts – dipped only slightly from 2007 to 2012.

One way to assess the concentration of governments is to simply count them, as the Census Bureau does every five years. More than half of local governments serve special purposes, such as schools, sewer authorities and water districts. In terms of raw totals, Illinois, Pennsylvania and Texas have the most units of local government. On a per capita basis, North Dakota boasts an astonishing 39 governments per every 10,000 residents – the most in the country.

We previously posed 2012 totals for each state here.

David Miller, director of the Center for Metropolitan Studies at the University of Pittsburgh, has developed another approach that’s worth considering, known as the “metropolitan power diffusion index.” The measure considers both the number of units administering common services and each government’s related expenditures.

By factoring in the distribution of spending, the index provides a more complete picture of how authority is divided within a region.

Miller assigned a score to each metro area, with higher scores representing more “fragmented” regions. We’ve compiled the scores for 942 metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas into the table below:

 

     
Area Rank Power Diffusion Index
Chicago-Joliet-Naperville, IL-IN-WI 1 17.97264379
Pittsburgh, PA 2 17.01405588
St. Louis, MO-IL 3 15.36777419
New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island, NY-NJ-PA 4 14.96385294
Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD 5 14.84296823
Boston-Cambridge-Quincy, MA-NH 6 13.80523584
Houston-Sugar Land-Baytown, TX 7 12.5400957
Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI 8 11.79228792
Denver-Aurora-Broomfield, CO 9 11.21731073
Cincinnati-Middletown, OH-KY-IN 10 11.0476609
Detroit-Warren-Livonia, MI 11 10.29227102
Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX 12 10.08484822
Scranton--Wilkes-Barre, PA 13 9.978412145
Kansas City, MO-KS 14 9.636492571
Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA-NJ 15 9.367285072
Cleveland-Elyria-Mentor, OH 16 9.340007651
Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Marietta, GA 17 9.208604317
Providence-New Bedford-Fall River, RI-MA 18 9.121516709
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, CA 19 9.09330921
San Francisco-Oakland-Fremont, CA 20 8.890599064
Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, WA 21 8.857980833
Peoria, IL 22 8.774464822
Lebanon, NH-VT 23 8.749201914
Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY 24 8.548298056
Portland-South Portland-Biddeford, ME 25 8.380197899
Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA 26 8.335809271
Columbus, OH 27 8.32590568
Harrisburg-Carlisle, PA 28 8.312967953
Omaha-Council Bluffs, NE-IA 29 8.227378545
Ottawa-Streator, IL 30 8.167813532
Poughkeepsie-Newburgh-Middletown, NY 31 8.138753148
Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford, CT 32 8.0817501
Indianapolis-Carmel, IN 33 8.080982466
Louisville/Jefferson County, KY-IN 34 7.99178538
Worcester, MA 35 7.893231201
Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach, FL 36 7.787337004
Pottsville, PA 37 7.77137134
Springfield, MA 38 7.726465084
Reading, PA 39 7.571680126
Davenport-Moline-Rock Island, IA-IL 40 7.548011068
Youngstown-Warren-Boardman, OH-PA 41 7.532615838
Lancaster, PA 42 7.520504065
Rochester, NY 43 7.471569269
Madison, WI 44 7.290493184
Johnstown, PA 45 7.27619001
Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro, OR-WA 46 7.098401585
York-Hanover, PA 47 7.031395635
Duluth, MN-WI 48 7.003070265
Dayton, OH 49 6.984041804
Somerset, PA 50 6.9748955
Utica-Rome, NY 51 6.925800387
Champaign-Urbana, IL 52 6.915655435
Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis, WI 53 6.884055293
Sacramento--Arden-Arcade--Roseville, CA 54 6.872951292
Brainerd, MN 55 6.849936025
Bangor, ME 56 6.681792293
Birmingham-Hoover, AL 57 6.680854674
Bloomsburg-Berwick, PA 58 6.537647093
Meadville, PA 59 6.46453749
Syracuse, NY 60 6.416339787
Greeley, CO 61 6.398006794
Grand Rapids-Wyoming, MI 62 6.377459337
Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin, TN 63 6.373895291
Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway, AR 64 6.371367393
Austin-Round Rock-San Marcos, TX 65 6.356867511
Gettysburg, PA 66 6.315244663
Tulsa, OK 67 6.297942074
Burlington-South Burlington, VT 68 6.291843084
Huntingdon, PA 69 6.274510854
DuBois, PA 70 6.269297583
Toledo, OH 71 6.253553631
Wahpeton, ND-MN 72 6.236438038
Minot, ND 73 6.071776149
Sunbury, PA 74 6.055455854
Indiana, PA 75 6.005673638
Platteville, WI 76 5.997016749
Buffalo-Niagara Falls, NY 77 5.98136442
Wichita, KS 78 5.969242628
Fort Smith, AR-OK 79 5.957627497
Huntington-Ashland, WV-KY-OH 80 5.93783213
St. Cloud, MN 81 5.931548942
Green Bay, WI 82 5.87010589
Galesburg, IL 83 5.867122458
Ogden-Clearfield, UT 84 5.830579367
New Haven-Milford, CT 85 5.817988528
Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk, CT 86 5.80241819
Sayre, PA 87 5.77677597
Augusta-Waterville, ME 88 5.731662893
Williamsport, PA 89 5.721317672
Norwich-New London, CT 90 5.710542796
Torrington, CT 91 5.681533339
Lansing-East Lansing, MI 92 5.666466308
Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL 93 5.648916741
Traverse City, MI 94 5.644284776
Topeka, KS 95 5.613541885
Grand Forks, ND-MN 96 5.575657346
Pittsfield, MA 97 5.570588824
Akron, OH 98 5.557421566
State College, PA 99 5.524785617
Salt Lake City, UT 100 5.517733938
Rochelle, IL 101 5.517489701
Pontiac, IL 102 5.464129411
Wheeling, WV-OH 103 5.454494971
Lebanon, PA 104 5.427905323
Rutland, VT 105 5.412866863
Canton, IL 106 5.405126847
Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV 107 5.403499163
Corning, NY 108 5.392210467
Ogdensburg-Massena, NY 109 5.391403799
Oklahoma City, OK 110 5.374823612
Kalamazoo-Portage, MI 111 5.341675468
Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL 112 5.340445001
Fergus Falls, MN 113 5.332592948
San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos, CA 114 5.316125756
Springfield, IL 115 5.303710585
Steubenville-Weirton, OH-WV 116 5.296431392
Colorado Springs, CO 117 5.242098111
Olean, NY 118 5.232557538
Niles-Benton Harbor, MI 119 5.218255704
Appleton, WI 120 5.196184293
Kingston, NY 121 5.178171591
Evansville, IN-KY 122 5.174274789
Des Moines-West Des Moines, IA 123 5.170294411
Rockford, IL 124 5.169936737
Allegan, MI 125 5.166032709
Canton-Massillon, OH 126 5.16310109
Barnstable Town, MA 127 5.158492762
Charleston, WV 128 5.137704353
Beaver Dam, WI 129 5.12539095
Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers, AR-MO 130 5.111163216
Parkersburg-Marietta-Vienna, WV-OH 131 5.100017088
Chambersburg, PA 132 5.088653881
Erie, PA 133 5.087614462
Danville, IL 134 5.08446942
Watertown-Fort Drum, NY 135 5.066681632
Greenville-Mauldin-Easley, SC 136 5.039576311
Wausau, WI 137 5.037401605
Fargo, ND-MN 138 5.03480704
Willimantic, CT 139 5.033941977
Berlin, NH-VT 140 5.025660904
Glens Falls, NY 141 5.013089735
St. Joseph, MO-KS 142 5.00452344
Oil City, PA 143 5.001141491
Marinette, WI-MI 144 4.994308791
Joplin, MO 145 4.992799988
Lock Haven, PA 146 4.992547724
Sioux Falls, SD 147 4.971750914
Boise City-Nampa, ID 148 4.970237773
Rochester, MN 149 4.967087383
Warren, PA 150 4.965752327
Selinsgrove, PA 151 4.963074937
San Antonio-New Braunfels, TX 152 4.956391142
Phoenix-Mesa-Glendale, AZ 153 4.942787299
Quincy, IL-MO 154 4.942655807
Charlotte-Gastonia-Rock Hill, NC-SC 155 4.938240754
Concord, NH 156 4.933562555
Edwards, CO 157 4.930012075
Jamestown-Dunkirk-Fredonia, NY 158 4.928149615
Whitewater, WI 159 4.884341478
East Stroudsburg, PA 160 4.88179274
Terre Haute, IN 161 4.865715682
Jackson, MS 162 4.862675086
Oneonta, NY 163 4.829067301
New Philadelphia-Dover, OH 164 4.808640361
Baraboo, WI 165 4.784698071
Eau Claire, WI 166 4.760632638
Salinas, CA 167 4.735149646
Bradford, PA 168 4.729880903
Mount Vernon, IL 169 4.725346411
Barre, VT 170 4.691084817
Provo-Orem, UT 171 4.682013556
Bloomington-Normal, IL 172 4.674358039
Taylorville, IL 173 4.65968522
Kankakee-Bradley, IL 174 4.650119621
Altoona, PA 175 4.63843969
Jefferson City, MO 176 4.616570733
Seaford, DE 177 4.614981208
New Castle, PA 178 4.60652045
Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol, TN-VA 179 4.582334713
Ashtabula, OH 180 4.581702396
Sterling, IL 181 4.578644389
Manchester-Nashua, NH 182 4.562115017
Binghamton, NY 183 4.549082059
Lincoln, IL 184 4.54800324
Sioux City, IA-NE-SD 185 4.543405503
Beaumont-Port Arthur, TX 186 4.525962458
Springfield, MO 187 4.525780277
Houghton, MI 188 4.513088815
Bloomington, IN 189 4.500646512
McAllen-Edinburg-Mission, TX 190 4.480811103
Flint, MI 191 4.474665902
Knoxville, TN 192 4.469082792
Bakersfield-Delano, CA 193 4.463181364
Chattanooga, TN-GA 194 4.448485755
Clarksburg, WV 195 4.447113319
Dixon, IL 196 4.445683339
Lafayette, IN 197 4.441349609
Memphis, TN-MS-AR 198 4.396911565
Adrian, MI 199 4.389511947
Rapid City, SD 200 4.361463066
Pendleton-Hermiston, OR 201 4.355900772
Aberdeen, SD 202 4.352226203
Columbia, SC 203 4.348617042
Wenatchee-East Wenatchee, WA 204 4.340037783
Ann Arbor, MI 205 4.33431848
Maryville, MO 206 4.330706573
Manhattan, KS 207 4.325453427
East Liverpool-Salem, OH 208 4.321883572
Eureka-Arcata-Fortuna, CA 209 4.315123916
Mankato-North Mankato, MN 210 4.309706333
Keene, NH 211 4.292744899
Point Pleasant, WV-OH 212 4.28788915
Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton, NC 213 4.287242508
Centralia, IL 214 4.284059297
Fort Collins-Loveland, CO 215 4.280163917
Salem, OR 216 4.278648275
Augusta-Richmond County, GA-SC 217 4.277914438
Mount Vernon, OH 218 4.27067965
Greenville, OH 219 4.264193383
La Crosse, WI-MN 220 4.26019191
Hudson, NY 221 4.243750053
Bennington, VT 222 4.242300267
Wooster, OH 223 4.238498951
South Bend-Mishawaka, IN-MI 224 4.238461458
Killeen-Temple-Fort Hood, TX 225 4.230196785
Kennett, MO 226 4.229165863
Fond du Lac, WI 227 4.214629242
Freeport, IL 228 4.205023658
Watertown-Fort Atkinson, WI 229 4.197053481
Holland-Grand Haven, MI 230 4.185888346
Auburn, NY 231 4.163141245
Jonesboro, AR 232 4.157981842
Coeur d'Alene, ID 233 4.156853826
Lewisburg, PA 234 4.143074589
North Port-Bradenton-Sarasota, FL 235 4.137748783
Spartanburg, SC 236 4.136743821
Lewistown, PA 237 4.136511316
Moses Lake, WA 238 4.127107047
Marion-Herrin, IL 239 4.124682912
San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA 240 4.114950769
Saginaw-Saginaw Township North, MI 241 4.112275632
Wilmington, NC 242 4.097464401
Cape Coral-Fort Myers, FL 243 4.09073567
Charleston-North Charleston-Summerville, SC 244 4.069336607
Santa Barbara-Santa Maria-Goleta, CA 245 4.055570545
Decatur, IL 246 4.05482071
Cape Girardeau-Jackson, MO-IL 247 4.050855139
Charleston-Mattoon, IL 248 4.047632688
Claremont, NH 249 4.047586425
Janesville, WI 250 4.046353591
Asheville, NC 251 4.045958177
Yakima, WA 252 4.042216558
Rockland, ME 253 4.041218371
Paducah, KY-IL 254 4.039157857
Raleigh-Cary, NC 255 4.02976626
Cedar Rapids, IA 256 4.029128306
Bellingham, WA 257 4.028703995
Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford, VA 258 4.023977288
Willmar, MN 259 4.019621045
Owosso, MI 260 4.011356945
Fresno, CA 261 3.998510762
Plattsburgh, NY 262 3.99645085
Jacksonville, FL 263 3.9947621
Macomb, IL 264 3.985128209
Dothan, AL 265 3.965234989
Ocean City, NJ 266 3.964235769
Waterloo-Cedar Falls, IA 267 3.957537781
Michigan City-La Porte, IN 268 3.94695703
Muskegon-Norton Shores, MI 269 3.941694257
Longview, TX 270 3.940801221
Norwalk, OH 271 3.938213408
Hastings, NE 272 3.93563278
Lewiston-Auburn, ME 273 3.930125929
Roseburg, OR 274 3.921338829
Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA 275 3.920507272
St. Marys, PA 276 3.914214416
Sheboygan, WI 277 3.911060049
San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles, CA 278 3.909744268
Cadillac, MI 279 3.909658305
Richmond, VA 280 3.908996216
Santa Rosa-Petaluma, CA 281 3.901949188
Aberdeen, WA 282 3.891179368
Spokane, WA 283 3.888267719
Alexandria, MN 284 3.88330501
Modesto, CA 285 3.880887573
Zanesville, OH 286 3.875160527
Menomonie, WI 287 3.865246313
Athens, OH 288 3.862744789
Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC 289 3.860492743
Marshfield-Wisconsin Rapids, WI 290 3.857951169
Kennewick-Pasco-Richland, WA 291 3.857813122
Manitowoc, WI 292 3.845712058
Logan, UT-ID 293 3.834474167
Atlantic City-Hammonton, NJ 294 3.823945828
Laconia, NH 295 3.822789316
Baton Rouge, LA 296 3.822621064
Jasper, IN 297 3.814941305
Fort Wayne, IN 298 3.796724667
Bellefontaine, OH 299 3.796523515
McAlester, OK 300 3.788366199
Hutchinson, KS 301 3.779019639
Trenton-Ewing, NJ 302 3.778592405
Coos Bay, OR 303 3.774170424
Malone, NY 304 3.771540922
Ukiah, CA 305 3.76641965
Cambridge, OH 306 3.76379964
Russellville, AR 307 3.762430044
Merced, CA 308 3.758043722
Twin Falls, ID 309 3.74981477
Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach, FL 310 3.735521317
Warsaw, IN 311 3.73464826
Effingham, IL 312 3.730322215
Williston, ND 313 3.727649394
Tiffin, OH 314 3.723534934
Austin, MN 315 3.723521648
Sherman-Denison, TX 316 3.721839892
Cumberland, MD-WV 317 3.721437002
Stockton, CA 318 3.716509648
Portsmouth, OH 319 3.716303291
Corpus Christi, TX 320 3.715975683
Enterprise-Ozark, AL 321 3.71404885
Florence, SC 322 3.708536997
Worthington, MN 323 3.708046638
Prescott, AZ 324 3.707786976
Coshocton, OH 325 3.706598286
Pullman, WA 326 3.70498081
Albert Lea, MN 327 3.69888313
Greensboro-High Point, NC 328 3.687519095
Visalia-Porterville, CA 329 3.685984558
Tupelo, MS 330 3.684841573
Centralia, WA 331 3.681840364
Amsterdam, NY 332 3.673597428
Carbondale, IL 333 3.671104448
Oak Hill, WV 334 3.662346221
Red Wing, MN 335 3.659370517
Norfolk, NE 336 3.652542217
Silverthorne, CO 337 3.648673453
Marquette, MI 338 3.647624683
Hilton Head Island-Beaufort, SC 339 3.644884228
Gulfport-Biloxi, MS 340 3.637556573
Jamestown, ND 341 3.636682678
Harrisburg, IL 342 3.632102907
Watertown, SD 343 3.631822704
Fremont, NE 344 3.625816261
Sturgis, MI 345 3.625347037
Santa Cruz-Watsonville, CA 346 3.624663972
Tullahoma, TN 347 3.619691256
Olympia, WA 348 3.618052849
Roanoke Rapids, NC 349 3.612504423
Mount Vernon-Anacortes, WA 350 3.609255524
McPherson, KS 351 3.596384847
Montgomery, AL 352 3.596211243
Medford, OR 353 3.592940917
Daphne-Fairhope-Foley, AL 354 3.590487742
Searcy, AR 355 3.587855154
Florence-Muscle Shoals, AL 356 3.586357009
Burlington, IA-IL 357 3.58249317
Mount Sterling, KY 358 3.570133107
Blytheville, AR 359 3.56893977
Oshkosh-Neenah, WI 360 3.563933796
Morristown, TN 361 3.562656689
Bluefield, WV-VA 362 3.55146322
Brownsville-Harlingen, TX 363 3.546589731
New Castle, IN 364 3.537277757
Kearney, NE 365 3.535493269
Jackson, MI 366 3.535075589
Mansfield, OH 367 3.532758741
Stevens Point, WI 368 3.529007161
Fairmont, WV 369 3.522104279
Great Bend, KS 370 3.514872093
Chillicothe, OH 371 3.509403804
Boulder, CO 372 3.507032375
Monroe, WI 373 3.506375574
Iron Mountain, MI-WI 374 3.505450711
Alma, MI 375 3.504718548
Crawfordsville, IN 376 3.503335931
Monroe, MI 377 3.50226947
Lexington-Fayette, KY 378 3.497895663
Winona, MN 379 3.497169562
Anderson, IN 380 3.496205569
Durango, CO 381 3.494864261
Fairmont, MN 382 3.489656148
Elkhart-Goshen, IN 383 3.480588363
Truckee-Grass Valley, CA 384 3.479697726
Wilmington, OH 385 3.467141588
Bremerton-Silverdale, WA 386 3.466557385
Beatrice, NE 387 3.463096088
Burley, ID 388 3.462441686
Mason City, IA 389 3.458998758
Lakeland-Winter Haven, FL 390 3.458837279
Morgantown, WV 391 3.457704721
Hutchinson, MN 392 3.456265363
Hagerstown-Martinsburg, MD-WV 393 3.45514874
Union City, TN-KY 394 3.450991447
Jacksonville, IL 395 3.432434723
El Centro, CA 396 3.424609718
Athens, TX 397 3.419277626
Wapakoneta, OH 398 3.418468038
Grand Island, NE 399 3.415924429
Ithaca, NY 400 3.414495588
Plymouth, IN 401 3.40905105
Miami, OK 402 3.398522958
Winfield, KS 403 3.396151826
Fort Payne, AL 404 3.392223631
Baltimore-Towson, MD 405 3.391131622
Fremont, OH 406 3.388054208
Clearlake, CA 407 3.385618964
Eugene-Springfield, OR 408 3.375253022
New Bern, NC 409 3.372797631
Texarkana, TX-Texarkana, AR 410 3.372679116
Ontario, OR-ID 411 3.367360866
Cleveland, MS 412 3.364082028
Columbia, MO 413 3.349101094
Kalispell, MT 414 3.346943374
Payson, AZ 415 3.344767909
Pittsburg, KS 416 3.33961403
Tuscaloosa, AL 417 3.338976566
Battle Creek, MI 418 3.338228039
Cortland, NY 419 3.332035723
Muskogee, OK 420 3.331584916
Marshall, MN 421 3.328983037
Vallejo-Fairfield, CA 422 3.32816104
Racine, WI 423 3.327868573
Sikeston, MO 424 3.326128214
Yuba City, CA 425 3.325220438
Cookeville, TN 426 3.323355421
Seneca Falls, NY 427 3.319699109
Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville, FL 428 3.313903341
Astoria, OR 429 3.310577614
Brookings, OR 430 3.309248103
Branson, MO 431 3.30581128
Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin, FL 432 3.304978731
Anderson, SC 433 3.304166304
Angola, IN 434 3.288391307
Marshall, MO 435 3.284780311
Pine Bluff, AR 436 3.281647557
Bozeman, MT 437 3.273362766
Bucyrus, OH 438 3.27165044
Johnson City, TN 439 3.267571389
Ashland, OH 440 3.266709113
Show Low, AZ 441 3.26518376
Clarksville, TN-KY 442 3.262315432
Port Angeles, WA 443 3.255477121
Lima, OH 444 3.254800297
Albany-Lebanon, OR 445 3.251667487
Bismarck, ND 446 3.251003588
New Orleans-Metairie-Kenner, LA 447 3.249820224
Bonham, TX 448 3.246381471
Waco, TX 449 3.241685691
Durham-Chapel Hill, NC 450 3.237121491
Bemidji, MN 451 3.233008214
Iowa City, IA 452 3.231007221
Albertville, AL 453 3.230800589
Findlay, OH 454 3.227526322
Muscatine, IA 455 3.221576662
Kendallville, IN 456 3.217458482
Salina, KS 457 3.20979767
Port St. Lucie, FL 458 3.208942831
Beckley, WV 459 3.207920557
Ellensburg, WA 460 3.205099744
Auburn, IN 461 3.204995121
Opelousas-Eunice, LA 462 3.193045683
Elmira, NY 463 3.191699234
Batavia, NY 464 3.186881621
Helena, MT 465 3.178053368
Kokomo, IN 466 3.175346947
Klamath Falls, OR 467 3.16334859
Decatur, AL 468 3.160294322
Scottsbluff, NE 469 3.159646755
Gloversville, NY 470 3.157778474
Celina, OH 471 3.15583344
Harrison, AR 472 3.150513266
Richmond, IN 473 3.149118777
Hanford-Corcoran, CA 474 3.146173552
Faribault-Northfield, MN 475 3.145901278
Marion, OH 476 3.144129222
Winston-Salem, NC 477 3.143523474
Vineland-Millville-Bridgeton, NJ 478 3.136953528
Coldwater, MI 479 3.135170265
Mexico, MO 480 3.122906088
Fort Leonard Wood, MO 481 3.119546946
Hattiesburg, MS 482 3.115887873
Decatur, IN 483 3.114768189
Rocky Mount, NC 484 3.113854412
Sidney, OH 485 3.113607963
Marion, IN 486 3.112206587
College Station-Bryan, TX 487 3.108490311
Huron, SD 488 3.106588872
Lexington, NE 489 3.106266993
St. George, UT 490 3.104948954
Van Wert, OH 491 3.104495494
Pocatello, ID 492 3.103247685
Emporia, KS 493 3.09876752
Bay City, MI 494 3.097086062
Spirit Lake, IA 495 3.095054899
Sandusky, OH 496 3.090112043
Coffeyville, KS 497 3.087689227
Montrose, CO 498 3.085854123
Chico, CA 499 3.085228699
Springfield, OH 500 3.080581395
Hannibal, MO 501 3.068397785
New Ulm, MN 502 3.067894446
Mitchell, SD 503 3.065437414
Washington Court House, OH 504 3.06297582
Jackson, WY-ID 505 3.061838022
Bend, OR 506 3.058212842
Abilene, TX 507 3.050669992
Gadsden, AL 508 3.048072853
Lake Havasu City-Kingman, AZ 509 3.046618441
Goldsboro, NC 510 3.044752594
Anniston-Oxford, AL 511 3.038892256
Urbana, OH 512 3.030322531
Lewiston, ID-WA 513 3.02561519
Warrensburg, MO 514 3.025608214
Greenville, NC 515 3.024784637
Brookings, SD 516 3.024074033
Wichita Falls, TX 517 3.020803316
Fort Madison-Keokuk, IA-MO 518 3.01866888
Hope, AR 519 3.011849361
Lumberton, NC 520 3.005481941
Redding, CA 521 3.000742368
Casper, WY 522 2.999298881
Sault Ste. Marie, MI 523 2.998826507
Macon, GA 524 2.99840466
Parsons, KS 525 2.993874003
Danville, KY 526 2.993810465
Merrill, WI 527 2.99123642
Albany, GA 528 2.981526691
Spearfish, SD 529 2.981025417
Huntington, IN 530 2.980833018
Columbus, NE 531 2.980049853
Big Rapids, MI 532 2.970710031
Frankfort, IN 533 2.969483823
Talladega-Sylacauga, AL 534 2.968401645
Salisbury, MD 535 2.968364816
Cañon City, CO 536 2.966670624
Longview, WA 537 2.961879064
Idaho Falls, ID 538 2.956439585
Mobile, AL 539 2.956433214
Vincennes, IN 540 2.951309117
Alexander City, AL 541 2.949455721
Brigham City, UT 542 2.948124279
Defiance, OH 543 2.942728593
Morehead City, NC 544 2.93849983
Valdosta, GA 545 2.935683114
Eufaula, AL-GA 546 2.933575849
Laurel, MS 547 2.931749245
McComb, MS 548 2.931554643
Escanaba, MI 549 2.931084152
Savannah, GA 550 2.923385965
Sierra Vista-Douglas, AZ 551 2.921635981
Greensburg, IN 552 2.911551349
Muncie, IN 553 2.910451859
Humboldt, TN 554 2.908382802
Lincoln, NE 555 2.901654347
Billings, MT 556 2.894383716
Rexburg, ID 557 2.887078531
The Dalles, OR 558 2.87801716
Mount Pleasant, MI 559 2.876169845
Riverton, WY 560 2.876087881
Mountain Home, AR 561 2.875082757
Rock Springs, WY 562 2.869694702
Pascagoula, MS 563 2.860656733
Elizabethtown, KY 564 2.851692863
Maysville, KY 565 2.845946322
Moscow, ID 566 2.842536038
Alexandria, LA 567 2.840262052
Scottsboro, AL 568 2.839597783
Tallahassee, FL 569 2.837738794
Harriman, TN 570 2.836439137
Pueblo, CO 571 2.834426125
Oak Harbor, WA 572 2.829756573
Farmington, MO 573 2.823308349
Southern Pines-Pinehurst, NC 574 2.819046881
Panama City-Lynn Haven-Panama City Beach, FL 575 2.813742356
Moberly, MO 576 2.810818789
Durant, OK 577 2.808532459
Camden, AR 578 2.805586877
La Grande, OR 579 2.791459662
Marble Falls, TX 580 2.79070435
Shreveport-Bossier City, LA 581 2.78858164
Roanoke, VA 582 2.78549511
Richmond-Berea, KY 583 2.78448391
Albuquerque, NM 584 2.784463839
Shelton, WA 585 2.782155789
Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent, FL 586 2.780739026
Vidalia, GA 587 2.780640466
Wabash, IN 588 2.780215054
Batesville, AR 589 2.778431608
Clinton, IA 590 2.77481047
Ardmore, OK 591 2.774336545
Walla Walla, WA 592 2.773818726
Dubuque, IA 593 2.771521389
Shawnee, OK 594 2.76610059
Salisbury, NC 595 2.765355943
Gainesville, FL 596 2.758291799
Ames, IA 597 2.749299042
Kirksville, MO 598 2.748065008
Naples-Marco Island, FL 599 2.746840528
Victoria, TX 600 2.745568425
Owensboro, KY 601 2.745524363
Dover, DE 602 2.739075241
Ponca City, OK 603 2.731427479
Storm Lake, IA 604 2.731352868
Ruston, LA 605 2.724992406
Burlington, NC 606 2.724055738
Washington, IN 607 2.722839407
Athens-Clarke County, GA 608 2.714813198
Dickinson, ND 609 2.71208217
Forrest City, AR 610 2.707519962
Seymour, IN 611 2.706444276
Lynchburg, VA 612 2.705230376
Valley, AL 613 2.698315845
Meridian, MS 614 2.693653601
Grand Junction, CO 615 2.690509923
Poplar Bluff, MO 616 2.690241683
Pella, IA 617 2.687469075
Lebanon, MO 618 2.684883971
Rolla, MO 619 2.681844873
Blackfoot, ID 620 2.680170391
Fort Morgan, CO 621 2.679609973
Columbus, GA-AL 622 2.664767927
Dublin, GA 623 2.664552379
Myrtle Beach-North Myrtle Beach-Conway, SC 624 2.656795649
Crescent City, CA 625 2.655716244
Napa, CA 626 2.65136582
Georgetown, SC 627 2.647751191
Weatherford, OK 628 2.64681309
Charlottesville, VA 629 2.636015893
Bedford, IN 630 2.628906401
Las Vegas-Paradise, NV 631 2.626829773
Jacksonville, TX 632 2.624118832
Atchison, KS 633 2.611454043
Elizabeth City, NC 634 2.610238627
Reno-Sparks, NV 635 2.609502497
Fort Dodge, IA 636 2.608664139
Gardnerville Ranchos, NV 637 2.606734584
Ada, OK 638 2.606101024
Yankton, SD 639 2.603462328
Corsicana, TX 640 2.600423468
Flagstaff, AZ 641 2.592801503
Mountain Home, ID 642 2.590703347
Midland, MI 643 2.589786455
Cornelia, GA 644 2.586082066
Forest City, NC 645 2.580784122
Granbury, TX 646 2.577660096
Phoenix Lake-Cedar Ridge, CA 647 2.576373783
Greenwood, MS 648 2.576169494
La Follette, TN 649 2.575331259
Newton, IA 650 2.574149285
Lawrence, KS 651 2.572717299
Hood River, OR 652 2.569612565
Elk City, OK 653 2.568374056
Orangeburg, SC 654 2.565938454
Madisonville, KY 655 2.565092868
Tucson, AZ 656 2.563567847
Shelby, NC 657 2.560377093
Owatonna, MN 658 2.557051925
Susanville, CA 659 2.553682141
Dodge City, KS 660 2.536600496
Huntsville, AL 661 2.531814091
Central City, KY 662 2.531443912
Cleveland, TN 663 2.52781019
Paragould, AR 664 2.523475993
Logansport, IN 665 2.51930169
Safford, AZ 666 2.519032261
Bishop, CA 667 2.507100829
Great Falls, MT 668 2.50692889
Lubbock, TX 669 2.50396506
West Plains, MO 670 2.502925512
Spencer, IA 671 2.500300684
Newberry, SC 672 2.498619386
El Paso, TX 673 2.495562197
Frankfort, KY 674 2.495332422
Athens, TN 675 2.495187669
Peru, IN 676 2.491816805
Troy, AL 677 2.491708654
Columbus, IN 678 2.489522601
North Platte, NE 679 2.483369832
Americus, GA 680 2.474551369
Fitzgerald, GA 681 2.474165881
Winchester, VA-WV 682 2.470360122
Lawrenceburg, TN 683 2.47018353
Chester, SC 684 2.463011963
Stillwater, OK 685 2.462998881
Cullman, AL 686 2.458266052
Mayfield, KY 687 2.456916214
Palm Coast, FL 688 2.456502226
Washington, NC 689 2.454909871
Auburn-Opelika, AL 690 2.452258195
Lufkin, TX 691 2.45037641
Greeneville, TN 692 2.450241064
Minden, LA 693 2.448741947
Union, SC 694 2.442288553
Hinesville-Fort Stewart, GA 695 2.437107673
Lawton, OK 696 2.43602651
Price, UT 697 2.432753997
Bay City, TX 698 2.429626801
Clarksdale, MS 699 2.429024147
Evanston, WY 700 2.426970926
Red Bluff, CA 701 2.423067317
Albemarle, NC 702 2.416927647
Havre, MT 703 2.416169512
Harrisonburg, VA 704 2.411537979
Natchez, MS-LA 705 2.408940978
Enid, OK 706 2.406203127
Tyler, TX 707 2.40382871
Douglas, GA 708 2.401594838
Fayetteville, NC 709 2.397232497
Brunswick, GA 710 2.395886991
Corvallis, OR 711 2.394523908
Waycross, GA 712 2.39119412
Martin, TN 713 2.389803701
Kill Devil Hills, NC 714 2.389275516
Marshalltown, IA 715 2.382967974
Elko, NV 716 2.377848374
Paris, TX 717 2.375687453
Madison, IN 718 2.371340006
Monroe, LA 719 2.369441111
Vermillion, SD 720 2.369123695
Brownwood, TX 721 2.367215166
Tuskegee, AL 722 2.360975162
Duncan, OK 723 2.356220526
Ruidoso, NM 724 2.354408197
Hammond, LA 725 2.352956319
Silver City, NM 726 2.347146868
Boone, IA 727 2.343243448
Gillette, WY 728 2.341949045
Helena-West Helena, AR 729 2.335233096
Moultrie, GA 730 2.332180307
Levelland, TX 731 2.319304795
Sedalia, MO 732 2.3171001
Boone, NC 733 2.316306029
Lake Charles, LA 734 2.3143723
El Dorado, AR 735 2.31407725
Jackson, TN 736 2.307076302
El Campo, TX 737 2.30308999
Arkadelphia, AR 738 2.293795681
Alpena, MI 739 2.293686966
Key West, FL 740 2.287953394
Scottsburg, IN 741 2.283756481
Greenville, MS 742 2.283624786
Madera-Chowchilla, CA 743 2.283591632
Raymondville, TX 744 2.282625051
Indianola, MS 745 2.281496998
Fort Valley, GA 746 2.28114312
Sheridan, WY 747 2.276865263
Murray, KY 748 2.276255032
Somerset, KY 749 2.268337193
Pierre, SD 750 2.263436879
Seneca, SC 751 2.260389419
Dalton, GA 752 2.260371982
Thomasville-Lexington, NC 753 2.259149522
North Vernon, IN 754 2.258957359
Morgan City, LA 755 2.258617042
Crowley, LA 756 2.257163118
Gaffney, SC 757 2.252788632
Lafayette, LA 758 2.250569954
Huntsville, TX 759 2.246260098
The Villages, FL 760 2.242673939
Vernal, UT 761 2.242354612
Cheyenne, WY 762 2.238175419
Bennettsville, SC 763 2.237659366
Columbus, MS 764 2.235903238
Corbin, KY 765 2.227445254
Dyersburg, TN 766 2.226211541
Missoula, MT 767 2.226071882
Sevierville, TN 768 2.225550152
Milledgeville, GA 769 2.219565939
Corinth, MS 770 2.214475919
Guymon, OK 771 2.211375773
Shelbyville, TN 772 2.208607759
Summerville, GA 773 2.206472463
Rockingham, NC 774 2.206458128
Bowling Green, KY 775 2.196022019
Abbeville, LA 776 2.192848777
Statesville-Mooresville, NC 777 2.188717594
Amarillo, TX 778 2.187725793
Magnolia, AR 779 2.185145999
London, KY 780 2.184816421
Rio Grande City-Roma, TX 781 2.184004019
Sebring, FL 782 2.183130102
Fernley, NV 783 2.183091109
Glasgow, KY 784 2.178279108
McMinnville, TN 785 2.177432024
Bartlesville, OK 786 2.171283821
Kinston, NC 787 2.171159099
Jennings, LA 788 2.16766383
Cambridge, MD 789 2.157600932
Crossville, TN 790 2.156471938
Marshall, TX 791 2.156389584
Paris, TN 792 2.154855331
Greenwood, SC 793 2.14578107
Cedar City, UT 794 2.138414209
Dunn, NC 795 2.131949807
Taos, NM 796 2.125385152
Cedartown, GA 797 2.123677478
Mount Airy, NC 798 2.109229692
Ottumwa, IA 799 2.100232123
LaGrange, GA 800 2.097212432
Altus, OK 801 2.089429677
Sterling, CO 802 2.088902397
Thomasville, GA 803 2.082081937
Gainesville, TX 804 2.077737004
Grants Pass, OR 805 2.073580672
Hobbs, NM 806 2.070881716
Nacogdoches, TX 807 2.067620707
Mount Pleasant, TX 808 2.065841851
Lancaster, SC 809 2.064323483
Natchitoches, LA 810 2.062182178
Wilson, NC 811 2.060559049
Mineral Wells, TX 812 2.060206285
Easton, MD 813 2.059056582
Oskaloosa, IA 814 2.052828046
Hays, KS 815 2.044442525
Laurinburg, NC 816 2.037241989
Kodiak, AK 817 2.022861328
Warner Robins, GA 818 2.018855099
Woodward, OK 819 2.014625204
Columbia, TN 820 2.012284093
Middlesborough, KY 821 2.006859852
Borger, TX 822 2.003341591
Selma, AL 823 2.00063159
Connersville, IN 824 1.99501497
Las Cruces, NM 825 1.993644306
Stephenville, TX 826 1.979871879
Roswell, NM 827 1.977113885
Anchorage, AK 828 1.976641545
Gainesville, GA 829 1.97561416
St. Marys, GA 830 1.965005014
Palatka, FL 831 1.958677357
Ocala, FL 832 1.954906345
Starkville, MS 833 1.951672672
Laramie, WY 834 1.93590791
Yuma, AZ 835 1.925178813
Prineville, OR 836 1.915748426
Hot Springs, AR 837 1.912330232
Cordele, GA 838 1.909849398
Houma-Bayou Cane-Thibodaux, LA 839 1.903062553
Vicksburg, MS 840 1.901855534
Garden City, KS 841 1.897470348
Kingsville, TX 842 1.896101312
Fort Polk South, LA 843 1.892507169
Beeville, TX 844 1.886302678
Jacksonville, NC 845 1.884947749
Ocean Pines, MD 846 1.882034782
Alamogordo, NM 847 1.875470197
Carlsbad-Artesia, NM 848 1.874544125
Plainview, TX 849 1.86809359
Alice, TX 850 1.866494665
Farmington, NM 851 1.864169541
Dumas, TX 852 1.85865533
Sebastian-Vero Beach, FL 853 1.8538255
Jesup, GA 854 1.853341524
Palestine, TX 855 1.852396822
Tifton, GA 856 1.849577024
Pampa, TX 857 1.84232322
Sweetwater, TX 858 1.840437239
Gallup, NM 859 1.836604642
Grants, NM 860 1.835679358
Clewiston, FL 861 1.834513304
Clovis, NM 862 1.829708157
Big Spring, TX 863 1.828595315
Bainbridge, GA 864 1.824261053
Rome, GA 865 1.822329778
San Angelo, TX 866 1.821586525
Oxford, MS 867 1.809780278
Uvalde, TX 868 1.802207995
Staunton-Waynesboro, VA 869 1.801681602
West Point, MS 870 1.799894502
Thomaston, GA 871 1.799639618
Walterboro, SC 872 1.777853575
Toccoa, GA 873 1.772668193
Dillon, SC 874 1.771847307
Lewisburg, TN 875 1.769846813
Portales, NM 876 1.765398635
Lake City, FL 877 1.762855208
Heber, UT 878 1.758141219
Pecos, TX 879 1.757868663
Sumter, SC 880 1.755794333
Bastrop, LA 881 1.753011396
Statesboro, GA 882 1.752656028
Yazoo City, MS 883 1.746518515
Calhoun, GA 884 1.74557139
Laredo, TX 885 1.744080018
North Wilkesboro, NC 886 1.741579798
Wauchula, FL 887 1.741459251
Brownsville, TN 888 1.737974645
Las Vegas, NM 889 1.729733419
Kerrville, TX 890 1.725260291
Odessa, TX 891 1.715267205
Brenham, TX 892 1.708575674
Danville, VA 893 1.699101061
Lamesa, TX 894 1.696001778
New Iberia, LA 895 1.690054596
Sulphur Springs, TX 896 1.683544131
Homosassa Springs, FL 897 1.672871502
Bogalusa, LA 898 1.67054442
Newport, TN 899 1.665395602
Tahlequah, OK 900 1.66201688
Fairbanks, AK 901 1.659635322
Espanola, NM 902 1.644125009
Brookhaven, MS 903 1.643638098
Sanford, NC 904 1.629676942
Eagle Pass, TX 905 1.617645077
Liberal, KS 906 1.615072923
Del Rio, TX 907 1.61162163
Tallulah, LA 908 1.603400995
Vernon, TX 909 1.601604422
Martinsville, VA 910 1.601555424
Lincolnton, NC 911 1.600431897
Santa Fe, NM 912 1.598907197
Okeechobee, FL 913 1.585803181
DeRidder, LA 914 1.575948676
Nogales, AZ 915 1.571569768
Brevard, NC 916 1.569592627
Deming, NM 917 1.566682153
Punta Gorda, FL 918 1.560847771
Grenada, MS 919 1.55412085
Ketchikan, AK 920 1.545861019
Picayune, MS 921 1.542382217
Henderson, NC 922 1.54237342
Butte-Silver Bow, MT 923 1.536456654
Campbellsville, KY 924 1.521682834
Arcadia, FL 925 1.511996104
Andrews, TX 926 1.477506797
Midland, TX 927 1.455856376
Culpeper, VA 928 1.411735629
Fredericksburg, TX 929 1.405050979
Fallon, NV 930 1.395221822
Snyder, TX 931 1.387788199
Pahrump, NV 932 1.341674434
Juneau, AK 933 1.297261243
Hereford, TX 934 1.261090453
Honolulu, HI 935 1.187005645
Lexington Park, MD 936 1.184694801
Pierre Part, LA 937 1.147567313
Carson City, NV 938 1
Hilo, HI 938 1
Kahului-Wailuku, HI 938 1
Kapaa, HI 938 1
Los Alamos, NM 938 1

Source: Center for Metropolitan Studies at the University of Pittsburgh The index is based on the most recent complete 2007 Census of Governments data, so consolidations or new governments forming since then are not reflected. For a detailed explanation of how scores were computed, please refer to the center’s methodology.)