Local governments put a lot of effort into trying to deliver the services that their citizens pay for on time, without waste and at a level of quality those citizens expect. But all too often government managers stop there: After working to optimize individual processes, they decide that their job is done and push on ahead without stepping back and rethinking things from the ground up.
For instance, in most cities, utility companies and departments of public works and transportation constantly cut and re-cut the streets to maintain their infrastructure. But while these agencies work to bring efficiency to their individual operations, it's forgotten that each street excavation, even after being patched, shortens the time before a complete repaving is needed. And each time the street is torn up, citizens are inconvenienced by rerouted traffic and delays.