Residential Segregation Data for U.S. Metro Areas

 

This data is part of a series on segregation in Illinois that resulted from a six-month Governing investigation.

 

Residential segregation has generally slowly declined over the past several decades following the passage of the 1968 Fair Housing Act. Yet today it remains a pressing issue throughout many areas of the country.

For a current snapshot of segregation across the U.S., Governing compiled the latest tract-level population estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2013-2017 American Community Survey. Our primary metric was the dissimilarity index, a common measure sociologists use that considers how evenly distributed demographic groups are throughout a larger area. Values represent the percentage of residents of one demographic group who would need to relocate to another neighborhood be fully integrated with another group.

Our analysis focuses on residential segregation at the metro area level. Some reports also publish figures for cities or counties, but these fail to capture segregation taking place across longer distances. (Read the full report methodology.)

Of the different demographic groups examined, by far the highest levels of segregation were between non-Hispanic whites and blacks. The Milwaukee-Waukesha, Wisc., metro area recorded the highest dissimilarity index, followed by New York, Chicago and Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, Mich. Nationally, the median black-white dissimilarity index – which ranges from 0 (fully integrated) to 1 (fully segregated) – was 0.526. 

Metro Area Black-White Dissimilarity Index White Population Black Population
Milwaukee-Waukesha, WI 0.798 1,058,740 257,895
New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA 0.768 9,028,065 3,106,157
Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI 0.753 5,103,511 1,574,192
Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI 0.737 2,878,311 955,584
Cleveland-Elyria, OH 0.729 1,451,595 404,358
Peoria, IL 0.724 344,643 35,675
Buffalo-Cheektowaga, NY 0.722 884,722 135,419
Muskegon, MI 0.719 132,180 23,239
Niles, MI 0.718 116,416 22,567
St. Louis, MO-IL 0.717 2,076,246 511,322
Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk, CT 0.677 595,323 98,931
Danville, IL 0.675 62,383 10,995
Cincinnati, OH-KY-IN 0.675 1,748,665 261,382
Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD 0.670 3,793,936 1,231,099
Youngstown-Warren-Boardman, OH-PA 0.670 457,587 57,288
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA 0.668 3,983,380 849,139
Flint, MI 0.666 297,950 81,431
Syracuse, NY 0.664 540,810 52,499
Pittsburgh, PA 0.661 2,015,128 188,126
Hartford-East Hartford-Middletown, CT 0.657 829,039 127,182
Rochester, NY 0.651 831,039 117,757
Beaumont-Port Arthur, TX 0.650 223,131 95,980
Boston-Cambridge-Newton, MA-NH 0.650 3,420,779 349,418
Saginaw, MI 0.649 135,088 35,165
Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson, IN 0.644 1,458,005 293,922
Birmingham-Hoover, AL 0.643 673,553 322,447
Utica-Rome, NY 0.643 251,519 14,237
Dayton-Kettering, OH 0.643 615,120 122,361
Grand Rapids-Kentwood, MI 0.640 824,500 67,106
Harrisburg-Carlisle, PA 0.640 440,844 57,312
Baltimore-Columbia-Towson, MD 0.639 1,605,111 801,713
Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach, FL 0.639 1,891,492 1,217,737
Gadsden, AL 0.638 80,750 15,847
Toledo, OH 0.635 490,881 85,130
New Orleans-Metairie, LA 0.635 653,758 435,693
Chattanooga, TN-GA 0.635 430,036 73,579
Springfield, MA 0.632 501,076 41,990
Lake Charles, LA 0.625 141,765 48,987
Trenton-Princeton, NJ 0.624 189,649 73,583
Columbus, OH 0.624 1,499,969 301,133
Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO 0.624 1,808,477 150,520
Monroe, LA 0.623 119,762 76,740
Charleston, WV 0.621 245,504 13,291
Erie, PA 0.619 235,528 18,859
Springfield, OH 0.617 114,419 10,984
Omaha-Council Bluffs, NE-IA 0.614 702,907 68,352
Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV 0.614 2,829,862 1,515,787
New Haven-Milford, CT 0.612 553,000 105,661
Cape Coral-Fort Myers, FL 0.610 479,250 57,549
San Francisco-Oakland-Berkeley, CA 0.610 1,873,832 335,084
Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY 0.609 709,495 64,242
Atlantic City-Hammonton, NJ 0.606 153,899 38,978
Waterloo-Cedar Falls, IA 0.605 144,829 12,074
Michigan City-La Porte, IN 0.605 88,538 12,093
Memphis, TN-MS-AR 0.603 589,730 622,061
Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX 0.603 2,469,095 1,116,928
Amarillo, TX 0.603 159,073 15,077
Fort Wayne, IN 0.599 306,402 41,552
Wichita, KS 0.598 459,516 47,108
Scranton--Wilkes-Barre, PA 0.598 476,923 16,844
Battle Creek, MI 0.598 105,142 14,191
Kansas City, MO-KS 0.595 1,525,181 256,523
Jackson, MI 0.595 135,108 13,066
Pine Bluff, AR 0.590 44,276 45,427
Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Alpharetta, GA 0.588 2,747,838 1,887,083
Lansing-East Lansing, MI 0.584 427,051 39,033
North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton, FL 0.583 599,265 49,328
Knoxville, TN 0.581 729,534 48,811
Providence-Warwick, RI-MA 0.581 1,234,563 77,213
Akron, OH 0.580 567,106 84,329
Winston-Salem, NC 0.578 453,378 115,005
Kankakee, IL 0.576 79,961 16,681
Sacramento-Roseville-Folsom, CA 0.572 1,207,093 154,134
Rockford, IL 0.571 241,646 36,630
Louisville/Jefferson County, KY-IN 0.571 952,616 179,033
Springfield, IL 0.571 171,916 25,010
Decatur, AL 0.570 116,498 18,493
Alexandria, LA 0.570 98,207 45,506
Naples-Marco Island, FL 0.568 227,002 24,395
Elkhart-Goshen, IN 0.567 152,901 11,044
Tulsa, OK 0.566 644,092 76,744
Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX 0.566 3,329,886 1,072,799
Salinas, CA 0.565 132,600 10,621
Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway, AR 0.564 494,857 167,246
Shreveport-Bossier City, LA 0.564 215,152 158,379
Jackson, MS 0.562 272,725 298,496
Fort Smith, AR-OK 0.561 185,273 10,311
Ann Arbor, MI 0.555 255,347 42,415
Fresno, CA 0.553 293,677 45,217
Lancaster, PA 0.553 443,708 19,261
Columbus, GA-AL 0.551 150,866 131,027
Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI 0.551 2,684,513 278,710
Des Moines-West Des Moines, IA 0.550 542,635 31,155
Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL 0.548 1,911,274 338,273
Montgomery, AL 0.543 183,410 165,052
Baton Rouge, LA 0.543 487,345 299,232
Topeka, KS 0.542 183,117 13,942
Mobile, AL 0.541 249,312 150,080
Tuscaloosa, AL 0.540 145,865 87,647
Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin, TN 0.539 1,311,363 275,334
Albany, GA 0.538 62,452 79,630
Jacksonville, FL 0.537 924,669 306,301
Roanoke, VA 0.536 246,934 40,586
Canton-Massillon, OH 0.536 351,629 26,756
Norwich-New London, CT 0.534 206,261 14,093
Worcester, MA-CT 0.533 734,527 37,559
Greensboro-High Point, NC 0.533 446,335 197,558
Binghamton, NY 0.532 211,843 10,214
Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia, NC-SC 0.531 1,518,424 546,979
South Bend-Mishawaka, IN-MI 0.531 242,025 36,829
Bakersfield, CA 0.530 310,638 45,024
Carbondale-Marion, IL 0.529 115,757 12,671
Racine, WI 0.529 141,849 20,797
Richmond, VA 0.528 720,264 368,149
Decatur, IL 0.528 82,514 14,906
Sebastian-Vero Beach, FL 0.526 112,347 13,103
Hilton Head Island-Bluffton, SC 0.526 132,245 44,448
Salt Lake City, UT 0.524 850,377 18,653
Reading, PA 0.524 304,286 17,000
York-Hanover, PA 0.523 372,701 23,061
San Diego-Chula Vista-Carlsbad, CA 0.522 1,517,153 154,599
Lima, OH 0.522 84,618 12,231
Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, WA 0.516 2,424,748 202,368
Evansville, IN-KY 0.514 274,955 21,191
Oklahoma City, OK 0.514 881,097 136,353
Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro, OR-WA 0.513 1,768,699 65,403
Brunswick, GA 0.512 78,956 26,921
Davenport-Moline-Rock Island, IA-IL 0.510 304,727 28,526
Waco, TX 0.509 148,355 39,061
Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA 0.505 391,128 13,416
Columbia, SC 0.503 460,354 266,639
Macon-Bibb County, GA 0.503 114,048 102,825
Springfield, MO 0.498 411,116 10,396
Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL 0.498 1,159,635 366,969
Kalamazoo-Portage, MI 0.497 202,780 27,499
Asheville, NC 0.497 380,509 19,942
Madison, WI 0.493 529,495 27,232
Phoenix-Mesa-Chandler, AZ 0.492 2,573,055 228,477
Champaign-Urbana, IL 0.492 157,340 27,110
Lexington-Fayette, KY 0.492 389,724 54,008
Austin-Round Rock-Georgetown, TX 0.491 1,057,470 138,478
Poughkeepsie-Newburgh-Middletown, NY 0.491 460,773 64,950
San Antonio-New Braunfels, TX 0.491 815,389 149,045
Hattiesburg, MS 0.489 109,427 49,191
Anchorage, AK 0.487 257,342 16,682
Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA-NJ 0.487 622,358 39,215
Corpus Christi, TX 0.487 135,054 13,907
Savannah, GA 0.484 211,283 125,107
Wichita Falls, TX 0.479 104,299 13,148
Rome, GA 0.478 68,872 13,938
Lubbock, TX 0.478 167,660 20,760
Bowling Green, KY 0.477 141,891 12,055
Huntsville, AL 0.476 300,880 96,664
Port St. Lucie, FL 0.475 298,050 65,902
Tyler, TX 0.475 134,122 38,746
Ocala, FL 0.473 245,045 42,355
Lincoln, NE 0.473 267,683 11,992
Panama City, FL 0.471 139,208 19,358
Lafayette, LA 0.470 330,860 119,292
Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach, FL 0.470 456,651 63,643
Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC 0.469 980,510 527,850
Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville, FL 0.469 427,709 55,543
Stockton, CA 0.468 240,170 48,175
Anniston-Oxford, AL 0.467 84,006 23,553
Wilmington, NC 0.467 212,008 39,741
Elizabethtown-Fort Knox, KY 0.466 120,531 13,599
Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent, FL 0.465 339,161 76,510
Durham-Chapel Hill, NC 0.465 334,005 163,494
Jefferson City, MO 0.464 130,468 11,456
Vineland-Bridgeton, NJ 0.464 73,427 27,464
Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA 0.464 1,493,828 309,795
Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers, AR 0.461 362,108 11,658
San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA 0.456 643,138 45,916
Valdosta, GA 0.455 80,741 48,983
Augusta-Richmond County, GA-SC 0.454 325,307 207,247
Dothan, AL 0.453 104,038 34,778
Jonesboro, AR 0.449 101,686 15,261
Manhattan, KS 0.448 99,530 10,888
Salisbury, MD-DE 0.447 281,027 69,418
Killeen-Temple, TX 0.447 218,933 81,600
Athens-Clarke County, GA 0.443 134,020 40,716
Gainesville, GA 0.442 118,722 14,050
Vallejo, CA 0.438 169,436 59,862
Burlington, NC 0.437 102,558 29,769
Cedar Rapids, IA 0.436 235,541 11,259
Tucson, AZ 0.435 529,974 32,055
Jackson, TN 0.434 118,691 48,604
Tallahassee, FL 0.432 211,742 123,067
Texarkana, TX-AR 0.432 99,889 35,598
Urban Honolulu, HI 0.432 185,366 21,577
Gulfport-Biloxi, MS 0.430 279,067 86,154
Lakeland-Winter Haven, FL 0.427 397,742 95,997
Albuquerque, NM 0.424 361,857 20,345
Greenville-Anderson, SC 0.424 638,713 143,771
Daphne-Fairhope-Foley, AL 0.424 168,951 19,238
Houma-Thibodaux, LA 0.423 151,302 34,536
Gainesville, FL 0.423 207,993 55,978
Raleigh-Cary, NC 0.422 788,837 249,000
Abilene, TX 0.420 110,168 13,111
Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach, SC-NC 0.420 339,273 54,776
Spartanburg, SC 0.419 204,830 60,568
Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton, NC 0.418 296,323 23,764
Hagerstown-Martinsburg, MD-WV 0.412 231,342 23,084
College Station-Bryan, TX 0.411 142,682 27,287
Modesto, CA 0.404 232,230 13,607
Charleston-North Charleston, SC 0.401 476,691 194,318
Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV 0.395 931,891 228,127
Lynchburg, VA 0.393 197,994 44,249
Clarksville, TN-KY 0.392 196,922 51,992
Goldsboro, NC 0.390 67,352 37,503
Colorado Springs, CO 0.390 493,039 39,294
California-Lexington Park, MD 0.390 83,340 15,760
Bloomington, IL 0.387 138,256 13,850
Columbia, MO 0.375 163,498 16,505
Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin, FL 0.374 200,734 21,850
Rocky Mount, NC 0.366 67,675 67,804
El Paso, TX 0.366 104,564 25,388
New Bern, NC 0.365 83,857 27,031
Florence-Muscle Shoals, AL 0.365 121,482 17,779
Hammond, LA 0.361 81,854 37,900
Auburn-Opelika, AL 0.356 105,864 35,923
Charlottesville, VA 0.353 160,357 25,233
Florence, SC 0.352 109,994 85,917
Greenville, NC 0.345 97,236 60,582
Longview, TX 0.342 181,481 51,622
Jacksonville, NC 0.333 128,724 26,342
Sumter, SC 0.333 65,250 66,833
East Stroudsburg, PA 0.329 113,048 21,807
Fayetteville, NC 0.321 249,795 161,610
Lawton, OK 0.317 74,514 20,185
Dover, DE 0.288 108,627 41,729
Warner Robins, GA 0.274 98,827 56,629
Hinesville, GA 0.271 35,460 29,132
SOURCE: Governing analysis of 2017 5-year American Community Survey data

Our data show stark differences throughout various regions of the country. Areas of the Northeast and industrial Midwest recorded the highest levels of racial segregation. Segregation between blacks and whites was lowest in the South and parts of the western U.S., such as Fayetteville, N.C., and Colorado Springs, Colo.

Typically, more recently developed metro areas tend to be less segregated than older areas. Areas with smaller populations are also generally less segregated than major metro areas. Research suggests college towns and areas with large military installations tend to have lower levels of residential segregation as well.

Metro Area Residential Segregation Map

Segregation Among Other Demographic Groups

Results for other demographic groups depict considerably less segregation in most (but not all) places. Segregation between Hispanics and non-Hispanics was least prevalent nationally of the groups examined.

Segregation Type Median Metro Area Dissimilarity Index Number of Metro Areas
Black-White (Non Hispanic) 0.526 233
Asian-White (Non Hispanic) 0.467 131
Hispanic-Non Hispanic 0.371 256
Hispanic-Non Hispanic White 0.407 255
Hispanic White-Non Hispanic Black 0.443 155
Hispanic-Non Hispanic Black 0.412 183
SOURCE: Governing analysis of 2017 5-year American Community Survey data

The following table lists dissimilarity indices comparing how two different demographic groups are distributed within each metro area. Figures are not shown for areas with fewer than 10,000 residents of a corresponding race or ethnicity.

Metro Area Hispanic-Non Hispanic Asian-White (Non Hispanic) Hispanic-Non Hispanic White Hispanic White-Non Hispanic Black Hispanic-Non Hispanic Black
Abilene, TX 0.344   0.379 0.425 0.397
Akron, OH 0.367 0.525 0.393   0.530
Albany, GA          
Albany-Lebanon, OR 0.297   0.298    
Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY 0.351 0.467 0.413 0.446 0.344
Albuquerque, NM 0.338 0.413 0.353 0.402 0.398
Alexandria, LA          
Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA-NJ 0.512 0.439 0.542 0.306 0.315
Amarillo, TX 0.387   0.445 0.409 0.407
Anchorage, AK 0.215 0.461 0.285 0.383 0.365
Ann Arbor, MI 0.259 0.481 0.308 0.473 0.421
Anniston-Oxford, AL          
Asheville, NC 0.374   0.380 0.503 0.519
Athens-Clarke County, GA 0.391   0.441 0.361 0.366
Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Alpharetta, GA 0.418 0.516 0.490 0.548 0.519
Atlantic City-Hammonton, NJ 0.316 0.539 0.441 0.427 0.388
Auburn-Opelika, AL          
Augusta-Richmond County, GA-SC 0.322 0.467 0.354 0.523 0.433
Austin-Round Rock-Georgetown, TX 0.377 0.420 0.416 0.345 0.335
Bakersfield, CA 0.463 0.481 0.520 0.499 0.461
Baltimore-Columbia-Towson, MD 0.385 0.477 0.440 0.576 0.537
Baton Rouge, LA 0.383 0.585 0.399 0.556 0.526
Battle Creek, MI          
Beaumont-Port Arthur, TX 0.386 0.593 0.487 0.482 0.465
Bellingham, WA 0.239   0.240    
Bend, OR 0.298   0.301    
Binghamton, NY          
Birmingham-Hoover, AL 0.444 0.523 0.469 0.660 0.594
Bloomington, IL          
Boise City, ID 0.372 0.333 0.371    
Boston-Cambridge-Newton, MA-NH 0.530 0.464 0.590 0.565 0.523
Boulder, CO 0.392 0.329 0.390    
Bowling Green, KY          
Bremerton-Silverdale-Port Orchard, WA 0.231 0.298 0.253    
Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk, CT 0.467 0.358 0.572 0.321 0.276
Brownsville-Harlingen, TX 0.393   0.417    
Brunswick, GA          
Buffalo-Cheektowaga, NY 0.442 0.593 0.502 0.619 0.574
Burlington, NC 0.380   0.460   0.250
California-Lexington Park, MD          
Canton-Massillon, OH          
Cape Coral-Fort Myers, FL 0.401 0.436 0.449 0.379 0.363
Carbondale-Marion, IL          
Carson City, NV 0.247   0.247    
Cedar Rapids, IA          
Champaign-Urbana, IL 0.302 0.516 0.360   0.405
Charleston, WV          
Charleston-North Charleston, SC 0.362 0.396 0.410 0.412 0.385
Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia, NC-SC 0.391 0.521 0.478 0.422 0.375
Charlottesville, VA 0.367   0.395   0.415
Chattanooga, TN-GA 0.437   0.455 0.572 0.568
Cheyenne, WY 0.263   0.270    
Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI 0.524 0.471 0.553 0.709 0.696
Chico, CA 0.266   0.281    
Cincinnati, OH-KY-IN 0.404 0.535 0.433 0.636 0.594
Clarksville, TN-KY 0.345   0.409 0.321 0.298
Cleveland-Elyria, OH 0.511 0.517 0.534 0.726 0.706
College Station-Bryan, TX 0.346 0.426 0.386 0.303 0.305
Colorado Springs, CO 0.270 0.318 0.302 0.256 0.228
Columbia, MO          
Columbia, SC 0.344 0.470 0.383 0.558 0.467
Columbus, GA-AL 0.353   0.388 0.576 0.489
Columbus, OH 0.393 0.489 0.470 0.534 0.452
Corpus Christi, TX 0.369   0.391 0.405 0.401
Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin, FL 0.252   0.269   0.347
Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX 0.422 0.492 0.501 0.445 0.432
Dalton, GA 0.441   0.459    
Danville, IL          
Daphne-Fairhope-Foley, AL          
Davenport-Moline-Rock Island, IA-IL 0.343   0.370 0.433 0.423
Dayton-Kettering, OH 0.362 0.469 0.379 0.685 0.610
Decatur, AL 0.504   0.552   0.360
Decatur, IL          
Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach, FL 0.378 0.428 0.393 0.478 0.469
Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO 0.444 0.395 0.482 0.571 0.520
Des Moines-West Des Moines, IA 0.445 0.481 0.480 0.387 0.341
Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI 0.466 0.559 0.476 0.747 0.721
Dothan, AL          
Dover, DE 0.189   0.239   0.184
Durham-Chapel Hill, NC 0.360 0.476 0.467 0.364 0.318
East Stroudsburg, PA 0.241   0.279 0.235 0.196
El Centro, CA 0.381   0.395    
Elizabethtown-Fort Knox, KY          
Elkhart-Goshen, IN 0.371   0.407 0.451 0.438
El Paso, TX 0.391   0.407 0.492 0.497
Erie, PA 0.404   0.449   0.325
Eugene-Springfield, OR 0.287   0.293    
Evansville, IN-KY          
Farmington, NM 0.352   0.287    
Fayetteville, NC 0.179 0.377 0.218 0.263 0.251
Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers, AR 0.457 0.430 0.468 0.578 0.540
Flagstaff, AZ 0.316   0.243    
Flint, MI 0.317   0.334   0.587
Florence, SC          
Florence-Muscle Shoals, AL          
Fort Collins, CO 0.224   0.228    
Fort Smith, AR-OK 0.514   0.538 0.276 0.265
Fort Wayne, IN 0.401 0.540 0.473 0.346 0.324
Fresno, CA 0.383 0.402 0.464 0.473 0.445
Gadsden, AL          
Gainesville, FL 0.211 0.457 0.228 0.436 0.408
Gainesville, GA 0.483   0.530 0.400 0.387
Goldsboro, NC 0.370   0.404   0.421
Grand Island, NE 0.467   0.486    
Grand Junction, CO 0.224   0.231    
Grand Rapids-Kentwood, MI 0.475 0.473 0.510 0.543 0.546
Greeley, CO 0.355   0.365    
Green Bay, WI 0.461   0.483    
Greensboro-High Point, NC 0.340 0.548 0.429 0.420 0.427
Greenville, NC 0.264   0.284   0.361
Greenville-Anderson, SC 0.365 0.524 0.401 0.471 0.406
Gulfport-Biloxi, MS 0.348   0.388 0.403 0.376
Hagerstown-Martinsburg, MD-WV 0.261   0.302   0.290
Hammond, LA          
Hanford-Corcoran, CA 0.334   0.368    
Harrisburg-Carlisle, PA 0.409 0.483 0.479 0.399 0.330
Harrisonburg, VA 0.412   0.433    
Hartford-East Hartford-Middletown, CT 0.504 0.407 0.569 0.467 0.424
Hattiesburg, MS          
Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton, NC 0.417 0.492 0.444   0.400
Hilton Head Island-Bluffton, SC 0.427   0.444 0.526 0.532
Hinesville, GA          
Houma-Thibodaux, LA          
Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX 0.405 0.508 0.517 0.447 0.430
Huntsville, AL 0.356 0.413 0.405 0.414 0.397
Idaho Falls, ID 0.256   0.260    
Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson, IN 0.424 0.504 0.496 0.460 0.415
Ithaca, NY   0.536      
Jackson, MI          
Jackson, MS 0.461   0.501   0.528
Jackson, TN          
Jacksonville, FL 0.260 0.424 0.296 0.497 0.451
Jacksonville, NC 0.188   0.235 0.351 0.268
Janesville-Beloit, WI 0.397   0.427    
Jefferson City, MO          
Jonesboro, AR          
Joplin, MO 0.427   0.429    
Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina, HI 0.189 0.511 0.312    
Kalamazoo-Portage, MI 0.306   0.336   0.397
Kankakee, IL 0.290   0.370   0.323
Kansas City, MO-KS 0.401 0.478 0.451 0.546 0.504
Kennewick-Richland, WA 0.425   0.436    
Killeen-Temple, TX 0.172 0.414 0.274 0.330 0.275
Kingston, NY 0.293   0.316    
Knoxville, TN 0.407 0.515 0.430 0.567 0.516
Lafayette, LA 0.324   0.336 0.555 0.497
Lafayette-West Lafayette, IN 0.368 0.648 0.383    
Lake Charles, LA          
Lake Havasu City-Kingman, AZ 0.246   0.246    
Lakeland-Winter Haven, FL 0.309 0.457 0.335 0.387 0.384
Lancaster, PA 0.464 0.446 0.492 0.316 0.248
Lansing-East Lansing, MI 0.308 0.626 0.359 0.426 0.353
Laredo, TX 0.370        
Las Cruces, NM 0.338   0.327    
Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV 0.367 0.329 0.423 0.302 0.316
Lawton, OK 0.167   0.208   0.239
Lebanon, PA 0.566   0.576    
Lexington-Fayette, KY 0.378 0.483 0.406 0.414 0.374
Lima, OH          
Lincoln, NE 0.362 0.472 0.386 0.347 0.337
Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway, AR 0.373 0.525 0.437 0.467 0.432
Logan, UT-ID 0.302   0.312    
Longview, TX 0.298   0.362 0.279 0.269
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA 0.507 0.482 0.612 0.563 0.536
Louisville/Jefferson County, KY-IN 0.381 0.526 0.409 0.555 0.517
Lubbock, TX 0.303   0.344 0.372 0.366
Lynchburg, VA          
Macon-Bibb County, GA          
Madera, CA 0.442   0.467    
Madison, WI 0.370 0.468 0.398 0.385 0.367
Manchester-Nashua, NH 0.457 0.457 0.475    
Manhattan, KS 0.272   0.313   0.233
McAllen-Edinburg-Mission, TX 0.412   0.396    
Medford, OR 0.299   0.310    
Memphis, TN-MS-AR 0.449 0.490 0.532 0.600 0.508
Merced, CA 0.275 0.408 0.321    
Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach, FL 0.521 0.420 0.562 0.643 0.624
Michigan City-La Porte, IN          
Midland, TX 0.356   0.397    
Milwaukee-Waukesha, WI 0.525 0.472 0.552 0.781 0.753
Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI 0.391 0.476 0.444 0.444 0.412
Mobile, AL 0.402   0.391   0.582
Modesto, CA 0.326 0.371 0.349 0.387 0.389
Monroe, LA          
Montgomery, AL 0.483   0.513   0.551
Mount Vernon-Anacortes, WA 0.399   0.409    
Muskegon, MI          
Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach, SC-NC 0.382   0.392 0.476 0.462
Napa, CA 0.279 0.597 0.290    
Naples-Marco Island, FL 0.425   0.473 0.284 0.280
Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin, TN 0.417 0.489 0.467 0.458 0.419
New Bern, NC          
New Haven-Milford, CT 0.449 0.361 0.531 0.402 0.347
New Orleans-Metairie, LA 0.379 0.536 0.421 0.602 0.561
New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA 0.479 0.529 0.603 0.609 0.536
Niles, MI          
North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton, FL 0.385 0.376 0.421 0.423 0.418
Norwich-New London, CT 0.420 0.395 0.464 0.319 0.276
Ocala, FL 0.313   0.346 0.353 0.341
Odessa, TX 0.273   0.296    
Ogden-Clearfield, UT 0.365   0.374    
Oklahoma City, OK 0.455 0.457 0.480 0.572 0.551
Olympia-Lacey-Tumwater, WA 0.221 0.314 0.242    
Omaha-Council Bluffs, NE-IA 0.478 0.467 0.512 0.640 0.616
Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL 0.378 0.386 0.419 0.480 0.464
Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA 0.505 0.318 0.542 0.443 0.428
Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville, FL 0.240 0.349 0.264 0.372 0.341
Panama City, FL 0.294   0.323   0.408
Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent, FL 0.248 0.355 0.268 0.479 0.480
Peoria, IL 0.385   0.436   0.455
Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD 0.469 0.447 0.544 0.563 0.527
Phoenix-Mesa-Chandler, AZ 0.446 0.392 0.489 0.362 0.351
Pine Bluff, AR          
Pittsburgh, PA 0.372 0.586 0.400 0.651 0.586
Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro, OR-WA 0.331 0.410 0.347 0.494 0.484
Port St. Lucie, FL 0.342   0.404 0.297 0.292
Poughkeepsie-Newburgh-Middletown, NY 0.325 0.388 0.380 0.334 0.300
Prescott Valley-Prescott, AZ 0.277   0.281    
Providence-Warwick, RI-MA 0.556 0.442 0.602 0.353 0.326
Provo-Orem, UT 0.315   0.320    
Pueblo, CO 0.299   0.309    
Punta Gorda, FL 0.243   0.262    
Racine, WI 0.402   0.470 0.245 0.220
Raleigh-Cary, NC 0.334 0.518 0.396 0.342 0.301
Reading, PA 0.633   0.661 0.360 0.351
Redding, CA 0.207   0.220    
Reno, NV 0.378 0.315 0.400    
Richmond, VA 0.422 0.495 0.495 0.524 0.473
Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA 0.362 0.432 0.421 0.352 0.359
Roanoke, VA 0.367   0.410   0.464
Rochester, NY 0.425 0.504 0.490 0.407 0.356
Rockford, IL 0.378   0.433 0.421 0.388
Rocky Mount, NC          
Rome, GA 0.409   0.462   0.421
Sacramento-Roseville-Folsom, CA 0.291 0.497 0.384 0.407 0.364
Saginaw, MI 0.321   0.439 0.450 0.406
St. George, UT 0.305   0.316    
St. Louis, MO-IL 0.368 0.500 0.382 0.667 0.638
Salem, OR 0.400   0.416    
Salinas, CA 0.558 0.407 0.596 0.637 0.655
Salisbury, MD-DE 0.365   0.393 0.441 0.429
Salt Lake City, UT 0.399 0.365 0.427 0.450 0.460
San Angelo, TX 0.312   0.326    
San Antonio-New Braunfels, TX 0.405 0.456 0.447 0.469 0.452
San Diego-Chula Vista-Carlsbad, CA 0.423 0.494 0.487 0.433 0.408
San Francisco-Oakland-Berkeley, CA 0.401 0.464 0.497 0.461 0.418
San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA 0.426 0.446 0.482 0.433 0.410
San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles, CA 0.280   0.291    
Santa Cruz-Watsonville, CA 0.516 0.385 0.531    
Santa Fe, NM 0.398   0.438    
Santa Maria-Santa Barbara, CA 0.449 0.378 0.474    
Santa Rosa-Petaluma, CA 0.331 0.317 0.350    
Savannah, GA 0.306   0.345 0.477 0.438
Scranton--Wilkes-Barre, PA 0.555   0.575 0.511 0.505
Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, WA 0.305 0.396 0.352 0.425 0.374
Sebastian-Vero Beach, FL 0.349   0.392 0.455 0.481
Sebring-Avon Park, FL 0.289   0.319    
Sherman-Denison, TX 0.321   0.337    
Shreveport-Bossier City, LA 0.365   0.381   0.552
Sierra Vista-Douglas, AZ 0.374   0.388    
Sioux City, IA-NE-SD 0.467   0.507    
South Bend-Mishawaka, IN-MI 0.394   0.450 0.393 0.379
Spartanburg, SC 0.416   0.457 0.478 0.445
Spokane-Spokane Valley, WA 0.248 0.378 0.266    
Springfield, IL          
Springfield, MA 0.574 0.471 0.622 0.416 0.402
Springfield, MO 0.302   0.314   0.421
Springfield, OH          
Stockton, CA 0.274 0.480 0.330 0.394 0.370
Sumter, SC          
Syracuse, NY 0.377 0.555 0.439 0.493 0.421
Tallahassee, FL 0.256   0.316 0.410 0.380
Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL 0.349 0.425 0.402 0.450 0.425
Texarkana, TX-AR          
Toledo, OH 0.323   0.363 0.564 0.529
Topeka, KS 0.367   0.409 0.352 0.303
Trenton-Princeton, NJ 0.467 0.450 0.556 0.428 0.417
Tucson, AZ 0.416 0.340 0.448 0.443 0.435
Tulsa, OK 0.433 0.481 0.471 0.460 0.445
Tuscaloosa, AL          
Twin Falls, ID 0.267   0.266    
Tyler, TX 0.440   0.514 0.353 0.338
Urban Honolulu, HI 0.255 0.447 0.347 0.388 0.462
Utica-Rome, NY 0.498   0.551   0.301
Valdosta, GA          
Vallejo, CA 0.248 0.404 0.304 0.287 0.279
Victoria, TX 0.314   0.367    
Vineland-Bridgeton, NJ 0.417   0.487 0.401 0.382
Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC 0.293 0.401 0.359 0.471 0.391
Visalia, CA 0.353 0.452 0.377    
Waco, TX 0.354   0.428 0.330 0.313
Walla Walla, WA 0.274   0.282    
Warner Robins, GA 0.277   0.296   0.353
Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV 0.404 0.415 0.484 0.564 0.506
Waterloo-Cedar Falls, IA          
Wenatchee, WA 0.301   0.297    
Wichita, KS 0.391 0.472 0.436 0.506 0.494
Wichita Falls, TX 0.322   0.364 0.382 0.377
Wilmington, NC 0.370   0.393 0.550 0.459
Winchester, VA-WV 0.403   0.426    
Winston-Salem, NC 0.374 0.526 0.464 0.365 0.339
Worcester, MA-CT 0.493 0.508 0.518 0.429 0.408
Yakima, WA 0.491   0.515    
York-Hanover, PA 0.474   0.506 0.295 0.270
Youngstown-Warren-Boardman, OH-PA 0.450   0.500 0.506 0.453
Yuba City, CA 0.265 0.380 0.270    
Yuma, AZ 0.460   0.488    
SOURCE: Governing analysis of 2017 5-year American Community Survey data

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About the Data

Dissimilarity indices range from 0, representing complete integration, to a value of 1, meaning an area is entirely segregated. Geographic definitions for metro areas are based on the most recent revised deliniations issued in September 2018 by the federal Office of Management and Budget. Data were calculated from 2017 five-year Census American Community Survey tract-level population estimates, which are subject to margins of error. Values were only calculated for areas with at least 10,000 residents for each group analyzed to exclude less reliable results. (Read the full report methodology.)