ADVERTISEMENT

School Segregation Data for U.S. Metro Areas

 

This data is part of a series on segregation in Illinois that resulted from a six-month Governing investigation.

 

Elevated levels of school segregation between blacks and whites remain prevalent throughout many areas of the country.

A number of factors might explain varying degrees to which schools are segregated. School segregation largely reflects where people live -- particularly residential segregation -- and local demographics. How school district boundary lines are drawn and how schools are funded also often play a role.

To assess school segregation between black and white students, Governing compiled the latest enrollment data reported by the Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics. For our primary measure of segregation, we calculated what's known as the index of dissimilarity, a commonly used measure by sociologists that reflects the extent to which the ratio of black-to-white students in each school matches that same ratio for an entire area.

Examining segregation for school districts or cities usually does not capture segregation taking place across different districts or larger geographies. So we calculated dissimilarity indices for entire metro areas, using the federal government's 2018 geographic definitions. (See the full report methodology.)

The median black-white dissimilarity index for 242 metro areas reviewed was 0.545 when those with small enrollments of either less than 2,000 black students or 2,000 white students were excluded.

The following table shows calculated dissimilarity indices, ranging from 0 (no segregation) to 1 (complete segregation.)

Metro Area Dissimilarity Index Black Enrollment White Enrollment
Peoria, IL 0.821 8,955 47,965
Milwaukee-Waukesha, WI 0.801 53,988 123,699
Beaumont-Port Arthur, TX 0.799 19,733 30,727
Cleveland-Elyria, OH 0.791 77,359 165,693
Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI 0.778 296,593 603,612
New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA 0.776 507,410 954,262
Syracuse, NY 0.758 13,636 73,816
Erie, PA 0.745 5,264 29,054
Albany, GA 0.736 17,282 7,625
Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY 0.735 15,400 84,911
Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI 0.732 180,286 386,800
Pine Bluff, AR 0.732 8,749 5,100
Buffalo-Cheektowaga, NY 0.727 28,767 101,103
Cincinnati, OH-KY-IN 0.726 52,251 228,947
Flint, MI 0.725 17,098 42,610
Springfield, MA 0.718 7,666 56,837
Muskegon, MI 0.715 5,061 18,959
Grand Rapids-Kentwood, MI 0.713 15,736 113,436
St. Louis, MO-IL 0.712 107,760 260,860
Niles, MI 0.708 4,955 15,009
Youngstown-Warren-Boardman, OH-PA 0.706 11,010 55,540
Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson, IN 0.705 64,844 211,394
Saginaw, MI 0.705 7,776 16,091
Pittsburgh, PA 0.704 38,779 238,884
Jackson, MS 0.704 61,060 29,752
Rochester, NY 0.701 27,931 100,832
St. Cloud, MN 0.700 3,151 24,048
Danville, IL 0.694 2,504 8,867
Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk, CT 0.690 18,426 79,925
Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO 0.690 30,433 227,456
Boston-Cambridge-Newton, MA-NH 0.687 62,314 413,414
Monroe, LA 0.686 18,422 15,847
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA 0.685 124,299 348,942
Utica-Rome, NY 0.683 3,514 34,652
Memphis, TN-MS-AR 0.682 130,744 63,684
New Haven-Milford, CT 0.679 21,919 61,297
Montgomery, AL 0.676 31,512 19,194
Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD 0.673 225,104 435,504
Birmingham-Hoover, AL 0.671 60,394 88,110
Trenton-Princeton, NJ 0.669 13,234 19,313
San Francisco-Oakland-Berkeley, CA 0.668 49,346 155,043
Chattanooga, TN-GA 0.667 14,299 51,746
Lansing-East Lansing, MI 0.665 8,952 57,650
Michigan City-La Porte, IN 0.665 2,114 11,815
Baton Rouge, LA 0.664 64,124 56,285
Jackson, MI 0.664 2,483 18,301
Baltimore-Columbia-Towson, MD 0.655 149,266 172,885
Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV 0.651 257,319 325,510
Toledo, OH 0.651 17,777 68,560
Gadsden, AL 0.651 2,974 11,221
Hartford-East Hartford-Middletown, CT 0.650 24,581 101,877
Dayton-Kettering, OH 0.649 23,643 77,141
Kankakee, IL 0.640 3,951 10,627
Omaha-Council Bluffs, NE-IA 0.640 16,951 100,169
Waco, TX 0.639 8,766 18,438
Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Alpharetta, GA 0.638 388,386 359,805
Columbus, OH 0.638 67,515 212,290
Waterloo-Cedar Falls, IA 0.637 3,178 18,545
Wichita, KS 0.636 10,630 65,591
Mobile, AL 0.635 30,490 29,270
Springfield, IL 0.634 6,393 22,510
Springfield, OH 0.634 2,169 15,884
Athens-Clarke County, GA 0.634 7,949 14,095
New Orleans-Metairie, LA 0.629 81,777 59,321
Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX 0.625 232,110 321,321
Akron, OH 0.624 16,475 67,785
Worcester, MA-CT 0.624 7,249 98,195
Kalamazoo-Portage, MI 0.623 6,620 22,010
Harrisburg-Carlisle, PA 0.621 11,573 54,887
Jonesboro, AR 0.620 4,866 15,447
Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach, FL 0.619 238,125 148,258
Rockford, IL 0.619 9,477 28,334
Decatur, AL 0.618 3,555 16,497
Portland-South Portland, ME 0.616 2,912 61,046
Kansas City, MO-KS 0.614 55,554 216,215
Macon-Bibb County, GA 0.612 21,329 12,658
Tallahassee, FL 0.611 21,147 20,000
Champaign-Urbana, IL 0.610 5,878 16,819
Decatur, IL 0.610 4,319 9,891
Sacramento-Roseville-Folsom, CA 0.610 32,885 151,388
Canton-Massillon, OH 0.608 6,018 47,866
Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway, AR 0.608 38,487 62,905
Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI 0.605 76,137 358,738
Binghamton, NY 0.604 2,565 27,345
Lake Charles, LA 0.604 12,139 20,568
South Bend-Mishawaka, IN-MI 0.603 8,729 27,175
Tuscaloosa, AL 0.601 17,065 15,601
Winston-Salem, NC 0.600 20,020 54,603
Roanoke, VA 0.594 8,291 30,355
Tulsa, OK 0.594 17,977 80,353
Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX 0.592 237,171 444,490
Savannah, GA 0.592 25,109 25,707
Charleston, WV 0.590 3,166 37,165
Topeka, KS 0.590 3,299 25,155
Naples-Marco Island, FL 0.588 5,334 16,386
Providence-Warwick, RI-MA 0.587 16,539 143,103
Lubbock, TX 0.585 4,906 18,670
Richmond, VA 0.585 67,842 89,915
Lima, OH 0.585 2,460 10,901
Rome, GA 0.580 2,874 9,637
Des Moines-West Des Moines, IA 0.579 8,481 81,922
Lewiston-Auburn, ME 0.578 2,104 12,862
Oklahoma City, OK 0.577 30,809 117,053
Fort Smith, AR-OK 0.573 2,276 26,006
Shreveport-Bossier City, LA 0.572 34,995 27,554
Jackson, TN 0.571 10,374 15,149
Fresno, CA 0.568 10,283 35,631
Knoxville, TN 0.567 10,267 93,169
Greensboro-High Point, NC 0.567 35,747 51,089
Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin, TN 0.566 56,444 169,980
San Diego-Chula Vista-Carlsbad, CA 0.565 24,116 151,743
Jacksonville, FL 0.564 66,167 113,799
Battle Creek, MI 0.564 3,004 13,735
Racine, WI 0.562 5,527 16,255
Bakersfield, CA 0.558 9,703 41,290
Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia, NC-SC 0.554 111,228 203,729
Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent, FL 0.552 15,681 41,064
Janesville-Beloit, WI 0.552 2,266 19,605
Amarillo, TX 0.545 3,719 23,751
Columbia, SC 0.545 55,208 63,781
Norwich-New London, CT 0.545 2,879 25,099
Green Bay, WI 0.544 2,390 37,775
Ann Arbor, MI 0.544 8,068 28,460
Fort Wayne, IN 0.544 9,252 36,725
Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, WA 0.543 39,285 272,542
Austin-Round Rock-Georgetown, TX 0.542 25,673 123,657
Valdosta, GA 0.539 10,121 10,304
Durham-Chapel Hill, NC 0.536 27,570 34,201
Columbus, GA-AL 0.536 26,431 16,803
Louisville/Jefferson County, KY-IN 0.536 40,500 111,263
Madison, WI 0.534 7,465 68,324
Elkhart-Goshen, IN 0.533 2,788 21,224
Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA 0.533 3,488 49,887
Carbondale-Marion, IL 0.532 2,024 15,464
Rochester, MN 0.532 2,738 25,902
Alexandria, LA 0.532 10,694 14,904
Jefferson City, MO 0.530 2,011 16,513
Stockton, CA 0.529 11,687 28,566
Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL 0.527 70,836 192,749
Vallejo, CA 0.525 9,787 17,311
Hattiesburg, MS 0.523 10,602 14,449
Poughkeepsie-Newburgh-Middletown, NY 0.523 12,554 58,764
San Antonio-New Braunfels, TX 0.522 28,187 96,592
Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro, OR-WA 0.521 12,065 210,028
Atlantic City-Hammonton, NJ 0.521 8,669 18,611
Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA-NJ 0.519 9,264 73,950
Evansville, IN-KY 0.519 4,160 34,669
Lancaster, PA 0.518 3,770 45,876
Elizabethtown-Fort Knox, KY 0.515 2,630 18,472
Iowa City, IA 0.514 2,582 14,949
Bowling Green, KY 0.511 2,038 19,902
Dothan, AL 0.508 7,407 12,835
Florence-Muscle Shoals, AL 0.508 3,330 16,273
Cape Coral-Fort Myers, FL 0.507 13,351 38,928
Anchorage, AK 0.504 3,110 34,569
Scranton--Wilkes-Barre, PA 0.502 4,137 54,066
Gainesville, GA 0.502 2,749 15,018
Davenport-Moline-Rock Island, IA-IL 0.501 7,556 40,246
Springfield, MO 0.498 2,414 58,653
Asheville, NC 0.498 3,406 41,057
Phoenix-Mesa-Chandler, AZ 0.497 50,303 320,162
Texarkana, TX-AR 0.496 8,430 14,692
Burlington, NC 0.495 5,260 12,127
Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC 0.494 104,690 115,364
York-Hanover, PA 0.494 5,513 47,629
Sioux Falls, SD 0.494 3,001 32,244
Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL 0.491 75,916 132,896
Goldsboro, NC 0.485 6,951 7,735
Killeen-Temple, TX 0.482 19,888 31,768
Abilene, TX 0.481 2,387 15,167
Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA 0.479 62,525 170,174
Augusta-Richmond County, GA-SC 0.477 43,753 40,249
Tyler, TX 0.476 7,486 14,235
California-Lexington Park, MD 0.476 3,256 11,764
Reading, PA 0.475 3,498 38,637
Wichita Falls, TX 0.473 2,389 13,864
Hilton Head Island-Bluffton, SC 0.471 8,250 10,135
Wilmington, NC 0.471 7,030 22,852
Lafayette-West Lafayette, IN 0.470 2,005 20,263
Anniston-Oxford, AL 0.464 4,844 11,695
North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton, FL 0.462 10,364 50,549
Salt Lake City, UT 0.462 5,396 150,622
San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA 0.461 5,573 58,295
Houma-Thibodaux, LA 0.460 7,986 18,602
Lincoln, NE 0.460 2,601 34,066
Panama City, FL 0.460 4,201 19,061
Corpus Christi, TX 0.458 2,358 16,323
Lexington-Fayette, KY 0.456 10,926 46,507
Cedar Rapids, IA 0.453 3,463 35,114
Tucson, AZ 0.451 5,901 47,690
Longview, TX 0.450 10,502 27,147
Charleston-North Charleston, SC 0.448 38,005 56,146
Gulfport-Biloxi, MS 0.448 19,562 39,443
Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV 0.447 46,550 96,130
Lynchburg, VA 0.438 7,658 21,504
Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton, NC 0.437 3,705 37,969
Lafayette, LA 0.430 27,943 39,027
Columbia, MO 0.430 3,947 19,486
Spartanburg, SC 0.430 11,586 29,112
Hagerstown-Martinsburg, MD-WV 0.425 4,525 32,438
Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville, FL 0.424 10,671 45,005
Huntsville, AL 0.424 16,780 37,972
Colorado Springs, CO 0.417 8,098 72,809
Gainesville, FL 0.416 11,584 19,606
Bloomington, IL 0.411 2,957 17,743
Rocky Mount, NC 0.399 13,390 7,799
Hammond, LA 0.396 9,350 8,959
Fayetteville, NC 0.396 31,860 28,316
Brunswick, GA 0.394 5,422 10,472
Greenville-Anderson, SC 0.393 28,645 84,920
Raleigh-Cary, NC 0.386 47,600 106,355
Port St. Lucie, FL 0.385 13,623 26,206
Lawton, OK 0.384 4,250 10,423
Charlottesville, VA 0.377 4,179 17,338
College Station-Bryan, TX 0.370 6,199 13,672
Jacksonville, NC 0.369 5,106 15,041
Daphne-Fairhope-Foley, AL 0.367 4,039 23,609
Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers, AR 0.364 2,483 52,404
Modesto, CA 0.363 3,013 30,026
Salisbury, MD-DE 0.362 13,219 27,485
Fargo, ND-MN 0.356 2,714 26,657
Vineland-Bridgeton, NJ 0.356 6,186 8,462
Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin, FL 0.354 4,316 27,656
Urban Honolulu, HI 0.354 3,211 14,780
Albuquerque, NM 0.351 3,105 32,785
Clarksville, TN-KY 0.347 10,639 26,457
Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach, SC-NC 0.341 10,410 36,448
Warner Robins, GA 0.335 12,443 14,320
Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach, FL 0.334 11,830 45,284
Greenville, NC 0.327 11,809 8,633
Auburn-Opelika, AL 0.317 7,195 13,501
Ocala, FL 0.300 8,612 22,237
Sumter, SC 0.299 13,619 7,144
Dover, DE 0.296 9,261 14,727
El Paso, TX 0.291 4,114 10,594
Hinesville, GA 0.291 6,047 4,344
East Stroudsburg, PA 0.272 4,552 12,982
Florence, SC 0.264 17,829 13,430
Lakeland-Winter Haven, FL 0.262 21,018 42,615
Sebastian-Vero Beach, FL 0.254 3,045 10,003
New Bern, NC 0.245 4,946 9,112
Sebring-Avon Park, FL 0.234 2,115 5,429

SOURCE: Governing analysis of enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics, 2015-2016 Common Core of Data

Download school segregation data

 

About the data

Metro areas with black or white student enrollment under 2,000 were excluded from our analysis. Our results strictly reflect segregation between non-Hispanic whites and blacks and are not intended to represent other races or ethnicities. School enrollment data considers only public, not private, schools. Geographic definitions for metro areas are based on the most recent revised deliniations issued in September 2018 by the federal Office of Management and Budget. (Read complete methodology.)

Related Readings
Students watching something on the projector.

White enrollment in private schools creates stark disparities in many districts.


Teacher in front of white board with classroom of students.

Plus, where the funding comes from and how it's spent in each state.


Measures of segregation for different demographic groups, including whites, blacks, Hispanics and Asians.


Local labor shortages are helping workers with only a high school education -- or less -- find employment.


States where teachers are protesting have among the largest pay discrepancies when compared with similarly educated private-sector workers.


Birth rates are at a historic low. If they don't rebound, the effects will be felt outside the family.


There's a wide range of dependence across and within the states. Here's a state-by-state look at how welfare, education and roads could be impacted by the next budget that Trump signs.


It's hard to say, though, whether this is a temporary adjustment or a long-term trend.


Current trends and statistics showing numbers of graduates for criminal justice, education, public administration, political science, public health and other degree fields.


Only half of 16- to 24-year-olds had a job last year, and youth employment has rebounded in just a handful of states. Is the recession all to blame?


Approximate education requirements, occupational employment and wage data for all metro areas.


View numbers of local school districts and student enrollment statistics for states and metro areas.


graduation hat

Review state graduation rates for public high schools, broken down by race and ethnicity.


How educated is your community? Compare educational attainment statistics for more than 500 U.S. metro areas.


Four-year state high school graduation rates for all students, low income students and children with disabilities.


Compare state spending for grants and need-based student aid.


Variations in enrollment and funding allocations for state pre-K programs.


Some states have opted to obtain waivers from requirements of No Child Left Behind.


View 2007-2011 NAEP report card assessments for each state.