Shafroth is the director of the Center for State and Local Leadership at George Mason University, where he is also an assistant professor. He is an adjunct professor in the Graduate School of Public Policy at George Washington University. He has served as the director of Federal Policy & Intergovernmental Relations at the Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board, was chief of staff for U.S. Rep. James Moran, director of Policy & Federal Relations for both the National Governors Association and the National League of Cities, and was sssistant counsel for the U.S. Senate Banking Committee. He is a regular columnist for State Tax Notes and an attorney. He is currently heading up a project for the MacArthur Foundation on the topic of severe municipal fiscal stress.