Illinois Residential Segregation Data

 

This data is part of a series on segregation in Illinois that resulted from a six-month Governing investigation.

 

To assess current levels of residential segregation, Governing analyzed the latest 2017 five-year American Community Survey estimates from the Census Bureau. Our primary measure is what's known as the index of dissimilarity, with higher values (on a scale of 0 to 1) representing higher levels of segregation between blacks and whites. We compute these at the metro area-level, rather than for cities, to account for segregation taking place over longer distances. (Read the full report methodology.)

Our results showed particularly high levels of segregation for Peoria, which also ranked sixth highest of any metro area nationally with a black population of at least 10,000. The Danville metro area wasn't far behind. Kankakee, Rockford and Springfield are all also among the top third most segregated areas for black and whites.

 

Changes in Segregation Over Time

Historical Census data were compiled to calculated dissimilarity indices showing changes over time. Nationally, levels of segregation have declined over the long term. That's the case for most parts of Illinois. However, black-white segregation remains about where it was in 1980 for the Champaign-Urbana, Danville and Peoria metro areas. 

Segregation chart

Research from Brown University offers the following guidelines in interpreting changes in values over one decade:

  • Change of 0.1 and greater: "Very significant change"
  • Change of 0.05-.1: "Moderate change"
  • Less than 0.05: "Small change or no real change at all"

See methodology for how values were computed. 

 

Metro Area Comparisons

Governing further compared downstate Illinois metro areas with other metros of similar sizes and demographics. The largest metro areas -- Peoria, Rockford and Springfield -- all recorded significantly higher dissimilarity indices than comparable regions in other parts of the country. Danville also had the highest level of segregation in its group. Segregation wasn't as elevated in the college towns of Bloomington and Champaign-Urbana.

For each area of interest, metro areas were considered demographically similar if they met the following criteria:

  1. Total population +/- 30 percent of area
  2. Black share of the population +/- 30 percentage points of area

In general, other areas of the industrial Midwest and northeastern U.S. similarly tend to have higher levels of black-white segregation. (See national results for segregation for all metro areas.) 

 

Bloomington-Normal Metro Area

Metro Area Dissimilarity Index White Population Black Population Total Population
Springfield, OH 0.617 114,419 10,984 135,520
Waterloo-Cedar Falls, IA 0.605 144,829 12,074 170,055
Mansfield, OH 0.595 104,284 9,372 121,533
Jackson, MI 0.595 135,108 13,066 158,989
Midland, TX 0.561 78,607 9,410 165,430
Carbondale-Marion, IL 0.529 115,757 12,671 139,491
Sebastian-Vero Beach, FL 0.526 112,347 13,103 147,981
Wichita Falls, TX 0.479 104,299 13,148 150,940
Bowling Green, KY 0.477 141,891 12,055 169,250
Elizabethtown-Fort Knox, KY 0.466 120,531 13,599 150,253
Jefferson City, MO 0.464 130,468 11,456 151,056
Beckley, WV 0.459 108,298 8,295 121,699
Manhattan, KS 0.448 99,530 10,888 134,680
Gainesville, GA 0.442 118,722 14,050 192,865
Daphne-Fairhope-Foley, AL 0.424 168,951 19,238 203,360
Abilene, TX 0.420 110,168 13,111 169,000
Hanford-Corcoran, CA 0.397 49,728 8,916 150,183
Bloomington-Normal, IL 0.387 138,256 13,850 173,231
Columbia, MO 0.375 163,498 16,505 202,353
 

Champaign-Urbana Metro Area

Metro Area Dissimilarity Index White Population Black Population Total Population
Muskegon, MI 0.719 132,180 23,239 172,707
Atlantic City-Hammonton, NJ 0.606 153,899 38,978 272,926
Springfield, IL 0.571 171,916 25,010 210,550
Racine, WI 0.529 141,849 20,797 195,101
Waco, TX 0.509 148,355 39,061 263,009
Kalamazoo-Portage, MI 0.497 202,780 27,499 259,830
Champaign-Urbana, IL 0.492 157,340 27,110 224,379
Panama City, FL 0.471 139,208 19,358 180,117
Wilmington, NC 0.467 212,008 39,741 277,496
Daphne-Fairhope-Foley, AL 0.424 168,951 19,238 203,360
College Station-Bryan, TX 0.411 142,682 27,287 248,554
Charlottesville, VA 0.353 160,357 25,233 211,777
Jacksonville, NC 0.333 128,724 26,342 192,685
East Stroudsburg, PA 0.329 113,048 21,807 167,306
 

Danville Metro Area

Metro Area Dissimilarity Index White Population Black Population Total Population
Danville, IL 0.675 62,383 10,995 79,207
Pine Bluff, AR 0.590 44,276 45,427 93,590
Cape Girardeau, MO-IL 0.574 83,532 8,538 97,136
Sebring-Avon Park, FL 0.497 68,505 9,268 100,177
Hot Springs, AR 0.486 80,927 7,952 97,994
Rome, GA 0.478 68,872 13,938 96,471
Kokomo, IN 0.425 70,737 5,791 82,457
Hinesville, GA 0.271 35,460 29,132 79,977
 

Kankakee and Decatur Metro Areas

Metro Area Dissimilarity Index White Population Black Population Total Population
Danville, IL 0.675 62,383 10,995 79,207
Gadsden, AL 0.638 80,750 15,847 103,132
Michigan City-La Porte, IN 0.605 88,538 12,093 110,839
Battle Creek, MI 0.598 105,142 14,191 134,327
Kankakee, IL 0.576 79,961 16,681 110,801
Decatur, IL 0.528 82,514 14,906 107,587
Lima, OH 0.522 84,618 12,231 104,157
Rome, GA 0.478 68,872 13,938 96,471
Jonesboro, AR 0.449 101,686 15,261 128,344
California-Lexington Park, MD 0.390 83,340 15,760 110,979
Lawton, OK 0.317 74,514 20,185 129,066
 

Peoria Metro Area

Metro Area Dissimilarity Index White Population Black Population Total Population
Peoria, IL 0.724 344,643 35,675 412,991
Fort Wayne, IN 0.599 306,402 41,552 401,228
Rockford, IL 0.571 241,646 36,630 341,150
Naples-Marco Island, FL 0.568 227,002 24,395 356,774
Canton-Massillon, OH 0.536 351,629 26,756 402,098
Evansville, IN-KY 0.514 274,955 21,191 315,263
Davenport-Moline-Rock Island, IA-IL 0.510 304,727 28,526 383,141
Lexington-Fayette, KY 0.492 389,724 54,008 500,689
Lubbock, TX 0.478 167,660 20,760 309,722
Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton, NC 0.418 296,323 23,764 364,044
 

Rockford Metro Area

Metro Area Dissimilarity Index White Population Black Population Total Population
Peoria, IL 0.724 344,643 35,675 412,991
Fort Wayne, IN 0.599 306,402 41,552 401,228
Rockford, IL 0.571 241,646 36,630 341,150
Ann Arbor, MI 0.555 255,347 42,415 361,509
Roanoke, VA 0.536 246,934 40,586 313,069
South Bend-Mishawaka, IN-MI 0.531 242,025 36,829 320,010
Kalamazoo-Portage, MI 0.497 202,780 27,499 259,830
Ocala, FL 0.473 245,045 42,355 343,778
Vallejo, CA 0.438 169,436 59,862 434,981
Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach, SC-NC 0.420 339,273 54,776 432,772
Hagerstown-Martinsburg, MD-WV 0.412 231,342 23,084 278,666
College Station-Bryan, TX 0.411 142,682 27,287 248,554
Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin, FL 0.374 200,734 21,850 261,048
 

Springfield Metro Area

Metro Area Dissimilarity Index White Population Black Population Total Population
Muskegon, MI 0.719 132,180 23,239 172,707
Niles, MI 0.718 116,416 22,567 154,948
Atlantic City-Hammonton, NJ 0.606 153,899 38,978 272,926
Springfield, IL 0.571 171,916 25,010 210,550
Decatur, AL 0.570 116,498 18,493 152,445
Racine, WI 0.529 141,849 20,797 195,101
Sebastian-Vero Beach, FL 0.526 112,347 13,103 147,981
Waco, TX 0.509 148,355 39,061 263,009
Kalamazoo-Portage, MI 0.497 202,780 27,499 259,830
Champaign-Urbana, IL 0.492 157,340 27,110 224,379
Wichita Falls, TX 0.479 104,299 13,148 150,940
Panama City, FL 0.471 139,208 19,358 180,117
Elizabethtown-Fort Knox, KY 0.466 120,531 13,599 150,253
Daphne-Fairhope-Foley, AL 0.424 168,951 19,238 203,360
College Station-Bryan, TX 0.411 142,682 27,287 248,554
Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin, FL 0.374 200,734 21,850 261,048
Charlottesville, VA 0.353 160,357 25,233 211,777
Jacksonville, NC 0.333 128,724 26,342 192,685
East Stroudsburg, PA 0.329 113,048 21,807 167,306