The number of Americans making the federal minimum wage of $7.25 an hour or less was 3.3 million in 2013. That total accounts for about 4.3 percent of the hourly workforce, a share that has gradually declined in recent years.
The Labor Department's estimates for minimum-wage workers by state depict large regional differences across the country. Approximately 7.4 percent of Tennessee's hourly workforce earned wages at or below the federal rate in 2013, the largest share of any state. By comparison, less than 2 percent of hourly employees earned federal minimum wages or less in Oregon, California and Washington.
About half of states have state minimum wage laws with rates set above the federal minimum, so these states tend to have lower shares of workers earning the federal minimum. Varying concentrations of low-wage industries in states also explain part of the regional differences.
The following map shows the average share of minimum-wage workers in each state earning $7.25 or less in 2013. Figures shown are only for employees paid at hourly rates and do not include self-employed workers. Hourly earnings do not include overtime pay, commissions, or tips. Tipped workers and select firms (typically smaller employers) are not subject to the Fair Labor Standards Act, so some of these workers are listed as earning less than the federal minimum wage.
Click a state to display its data. Please zoom out to view Alaska and Hawaii.
Figures represent Governing calculations using BLS Current Population Survey data for 2013 annual averages.
Additional State Data
The following table lists additional data for median wages and hourly workers earning wages at or below the federal rate. Hourly earnings do not include overtime pay, commissions, or tips. Totals represent 2013 annual averages and do not include self-employed workers.
|State||At or Below Minimum Wage||Below Minimum Wage||At Minimum Wage||Median Hourly Earnings||Std. Error (+/-)|
|District of Columbia||4,000||3,000||1,000||$13.58||$1.48|
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