A Tale of Two Recoveries a Decade Since the Recession

The largest metro areas and those with highly educated workforces have rebounded well, but many other regions have struggled to recover job losses.
by | December 5, 2017
Binghamton, N.Y., has seen one of the largest declines in its workforce nationally since the Great Recession began. (FlickrCC/Doug Kerr)

Like many smaller economies, the Binghamton, N.Y., region has seen its workforce slowly dwindle since the arrival of the Great Recession. Its large manufacturing sector was hit hard as companies lost defense contracts and a nearby IBM facility implemented multiple rounds of layoffs. Over the past decade, the region shed nearly 9 percent of its workforce -- one of the largest declines of any metro area in the nation.

Elsewhere in the state, the sprawling New York City metro area and the state capital of Albany have experienced much stronger recoveries -- up about 9 percent and 4.4 percent, respectively.

New York is, in many ways, a microcosm of what's happened across much of the country since the Great Recession began 10 years ago this month: The most populated regions and those with highly educated workforces have recovered, while smaller areas mostly continue to struggle.

Governing analyzed federal employment estimates for all metro areas over the 10-year period. Data show the smallest regions with less than 50,000 workers have seen their economies grow by an average of just 1.6 percent. Metro areas with workforces of at least a half million, on the other hand, have seen their economies grow by an average of about 10 percent.

 

Metro Area Workforce Average Job Change Since Recession Began Metro Area Count
Less than 50,000 1.6% 48
50,000 to 100,000 3.7% 112
100,00 to 200,000 4.4% 78
200,000 to 500,000 6.4% 55
500,000 to 1 million 10.4% 21
More than 1 million 9.1% 28
SOURCE: Governing calculations of BLS December 2007 and October 2017 estimates
 

The main issue holding back smaller regions is that their economies often aren’t very diverse, says Gary Keith, a regional economist with M&T Bank in New York. “There’s 20 or 25 big metro areas that have done extremely well," he says, "but everyone else has not kept that type of pace.”

But if there’s one advantage these smaller regions have going for them, Keith adds, it’s that they offer a much lower cost-of-living than a large metropolis or coastal city. That, he says, could help to slow population losses.

The few small metro areas with sharp job gains tend to be well-educated college towns. Consider Ithaca, N.Y., where over half of adults hold either bachelor’s or advanced degrees (The U.S. average is 33 percent.). The region’s labor market has expanded 13 percent over the decade, the largest increase in the state.

Education is a major determining factor in how regional economies have fared.

Just about everywhere suffered job losses the first few years of the recession. But over the decade, regions where at least a quarter of adults hold bachelor’s or advanced degrees experienced more than double the rate of job growth of other less-educated labor markets.

 

 

Types of industries that make up local economies also explain regions’ diverging fortunes.

Education, health and business-related industries have all recovered quite well. That’s helped prop up regions with more of these jobs, particularly state capitals and those home to large universities. Other large sectors of the economy, however, including construction and wholesale trade, still employ fewer workers now than their recession-era peaks, according to Labor Department figures.

That's especially true for regions that rely heavily on manufacturing.

Rockford, Ill., one such region, has sustained among the largest job losses since the recession began. Downsizing in manufacturing led to declines in retail trade, construction and other segments of the area’s economy, says Tom Austin, an economist with the Illinois Department of Employment Security. The region responded with a slew of initiatives targeting education and workforce development, such as a new four-year engineering program at local colleges and career readiness academy programs at Rockford Public Schools.

Many of the hardest-hit regions over the decade, such as Rockford and Binghamton, are either manufacturing centers or home to a single industry. By contrast, regions with the top employment gains were college towns or those supported by tech or energy firms.

 

Largest Metro Job Losses   Top Job Growth Rates  
Atlantic City-Hammonton, NJ -10.7% Austin-Round Rock, TX 31.9%
Binghamton, NY -8.6% Provo-Orem, UT 30.8%
Shreveport-Bossier City, LA -8.0% Greeley, CO 25.5%
Lafayette, LA -7.2% Lake Charles, LA 24.2%
Rockford, IL -6.8% College Station-Bryan, TX 23.3%
Peoria, IL -6.8% Nashville-Davidson, TN 23.2%
Fort Smith, AR-OK -6.6% Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers, AR-MO 23.1%
Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton, NC -6.3% Fort Collins, CO 22.8%
Huntington-Ashland, WV-KY-OH -6.0% San Antonio-New Braunfels, TX 22.7%
Youngstown-Warren-Boardman, OH-PA -6.0% Fargo, ND-MN 20.3%
NOTE: Data is shown for metro areas with at least 100,000 jobs. Some economies peaked sooner or later than others, so reviewing other periods would yield different rankings. SOURCE: Governing calculations of BLS seasonally adjusted monthly data since December 2007
 

If there's one small metro area that's enjoyed rapid growth counter to national trends, it's Lake Charles, La. The area's economy is one of the fastest growing in the country, propelled by major investments in liquefied natural gas facilities.

But for Lafayette, Shreveport and other regional economies in the state that are also closely tied to the energy sector, the story has been much different. After initially booming, they experienced major job losses as oil prices dropped or drillers shifted operations elsewhere.

Loren Scott, a Louisiana State University economist, says Lafayette and Shreveport have since lured some tech firms, but they tend to be smaller companies that employ less than 100 workers. “Education," Scott adds, "plays a role in keeping these economies from diversifying as much as they would like."

Still, this all doesn't mean that struggling economies can't reverse job losses. M&T Bank’s Keith cited Pittsburgh and Buffalo, N.Y., as two once predominately industrial areas that have reinvented their economies. “It’s almost a mental block that comes into play about how a community views itself and what it should be doing,” Keith says. “The more you recognize that you’re not going to have the industrial path come back, the better off you’ll be.”

 

Metro Area Change Dec. 2007 Employment Oct. 2017 Employment
Lake Havasu City-Kingman, AZ -6.1% 52,500 49,300
Dalton, GA -9.4% 77,500 70,200
Merced, CA 9.2% 60,600 66,200
Hanford-Corcoran, CA 3.7% 38,000 39,400
Madera, CA 5.4% 36,900 38,900
Danville, IL -9.4% 31,000 28,100
Visalia-Porterville, CA 8.5% 117,000 126,900
El Centro, CA 6.3% 49,600 52,700
Yuma, AZ 0.7% 54,300 54,700
Houma-Thibodaux, LA -12.2% 97,000 85,200
Vineland-Bridgeton, NJ -2.9% 62,300 60,500
Odessa, TX 15.1% 61,400 70,700
Farmington, NM -9.2% 53,100 48,200
Bakersfield, CA 7.1% 243,200 260,500
Morristown, TN 0.0% 47,000 47,000
Mansfield, OH -8.0% 57,600 53,000
Yakima, WA 7.7% 79,600 85,700
Pine Bluff, AR -14.1% 38,300 32,900
Rocky Mount, NC -12.5% 64,600 56,500
Cumberland, MD-WV -2.0% 39,700 38,900
Longview, WA 2.1% 38,500 39,300
Gadsden, AL 3.4% 37,900 39,200
Yuba City, CA 4.0% 42,200 43,900
Fort Smith, AR-OK -6.6% 121,400 113,400
Texarkana, TX-AR -2.7% 62,100 60,400
Brownsville-Harlingen, TX 14.9% 124,600 143,200
Weirton-Steubenville, WV-OH -14.7% 48,400 41,300
Modesto, CA 7.7% 163,300 175,800
McAllen-Edinburg-Mission, TX 19.0% 217,600 259,000
Beaumont-Port Arthur, TX -2.4% 166,700 162,700
Alexandria, LA -4.3% 65,500 62,700
Laredo, TX 16.7% 89,600 104,600
Michigan City-La Porte, IN -13.9% 46,600 40,100
Lima, OH -5.0% 55,800 53,000
Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville, AL -11.9% 53,100 46,800
Albany, GA -3.2% 64,800 62,700
Longview, TX 0.3% 97,600 97,900
Ocala, FL -1.0% 105,000 103,900
Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton, NC -6.3% 161,500 151,400
Victoria, TX 0.2% 42,200 42,300
Hinesville, GA 11.4% 18,400 20,500
Springfield, OH -5.3% 52,900 50,100
Elkhart-Goshen, IN 7.7% 128,900 138,800
Muskegon, MI -1.4% 64,800 63,900
Bay City, MI -5.5% 37,900 35,800
Goldsboro, NC -8.4% 45,200 41,400
Parkersburg-Vienna, WV -8.1% 43,200 39,700
Stockton-Lodi, CA 6.6% 215,900 230,200
Cleveland, TN 19.4% 40,800 48,700
Dothan, AL -6.7% 62,400 58,200
Rome, GA -2.4% 42,200 41,200
Monroe, MI 1.4% 42,300 42,900
Kankakee, IL 1.6% 44,800 45,500
Owensboro, KY 4.5% 51,100 53,400
Lakeland-Winter Haven, FL 6.4% 209,200 222,500
Kokomo, IN 3.1% 41,600 42,900
St. Joseph, MO-KS 5.5% 59,600 62,900
Johnstown, PA -9.3% 62,100 56,300
Decatur, AL -9.2% 59,500 54,000
Terre Haute, IN -2.7% 73,600 71,600
Sumter, SC 1.0% 38,800 39,200
Flint, MI -4.8% 148,100 141,000
Jacksonville, NC 6.9% 46,600 49,800
Corpus Christi, TX 7.7% 182,800 196,900
Fresno, CA 10.0% 314,400 345,700
Huntington-Ashland, WV-KY-OH -6.0% 146,700 137,900
Altoona, PA -4.8% 62,800 59,800
Lebanon, PA 3.0% 50,300 51,800
Redding, CA 3.7% 65,700 68,100
Wheeling, WV-OH -2.3% 68,300 66,700
Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol, TN-VA -1.2% 123,800 122,300
Hagerstown-Martinsburg, MD-WV 4.5% 102,900 107,500
Florence, SC 0.5% 88,500 88,900
Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA 13.5% 1,286,600 1,460,700
Jackson, MI 0.0% 58,300 58,300
Battle Creek, MI 2.2% 58,200 59,500
Saginaw, MI 1.8% 88,700 90,300
Youngstown-Warren-Boardman, OH-PA -6.0% 237,100 222,900
Janesville-Beloit, WI -0.4% 70,200 69,900
Sherman-Denison, TX 7.8% 43,400 46,800
Elizabethtown-Fort Knox, KY 10.3% 52,500 57,900
Williamsport, PA -2.2% 54,000 52,800
Valdosta, GA -0.4% 57,000 56,800
Florence-Muscle Shoals, AL 1.2% 56,700 57,400
Lawton, OK 3.1% 44,600 46,000
Lake Charles, LA 24.2% 93,500 116,100
Sioux City, IA-NE-SD 1.0% 86,600 87,500
Carson City, NV -9.8% 32,600 29,400
Lafayette, LA -7.2% 214,200 198,700
Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula, MS -3.0% 161,300 156,400
Punta Gorda, FL 11.3% 44,400 49,400
Joplin, MO 2.8% 80,000 82,200
Wichita Falls, TX -6.1% 61,900 58,100
Canton-Massillon, OH -1.1% 173,400 171,500
El Paso, TX 13.8% 280,900 319,700
Hot Springs, AR -1.5% 38,800 38,200
Waco, TX 8.8% 109,400 119,000
Fond du Lac, WI -1.4% 49,000 48,300
Lewiston, ID-WA 5.8% 27,800 29,400
Killeen-Temple, TX 18.5% 126,200 149,600
Rockford, IL -6.8% 161,900 150,900
Burlington, NC 0.5% 62,200 62,500
Pueblo, CO 6.1% 58,800 62,400
Panama City, FL 6.8% 80,800 86,300
Abilene, TX 2.2% 66,900 68,400
Spartanburg, SC 8.7% 138,800 150,900
Macon-Bibb County, GA 2.0% 101,200 103,200
Casper, WY -6.2% 40,200 37,700
Mobile, AL -3.2% 184,700 178,700
Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach, FL 6.9% 189,500 202,500
Jonesboro, AR 16.5% 49,000 57,100
San Angelo, TX 7.2% 46,000 49,300
Clarksville, TN-KY 9.0% 82,000 89,400
Wenatchee, WA 13.9% 40,400 46,000
Warner Robins, GA 6.0% 70,000 74,200
Monroe, LA 1.0% 79,200 80,000
Brunswick, GA -3.7% 46,000 44,300
Dover, DE 2.8% 67,700 69,600
Shreveport-Bossier City, LA -8.0% 193,400 177,900
Columbus, GA-AL -0.2% 121,800 121,500
Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV 5.8% 931,400 985,300
Jackson, TN 5.8% 65,200 69,000
Gainesville, GA 14.5% 78,800 90,200
Charleston, WV -5.9% 126,700 119,200
Fayetteville, NC 2.7% 128,700 132,200
York-Hanover, PA 0.2% 183,700 184,100
Scranton--Wilkes-Barre--Hazleton, PA 0.1% 262,900 263,100
Decatur, IL -8.0% 55,100 50,700
Utica-Rome, NY -3.7% 132,700 127,800
Amarillo, TX 7.0% 114,100 122,100
Reading, PA 3.0% 174,100 179,300
Salinas, CA 5.8% 132,100 139,800
Coeur d'Alene, ID 9.3% 56,900 62,200
Bowling Green, KY 10.5% 69,600 76,900
Muncie, IN -2.3% 53,200 52,000
Evansville, IN-KY 3.1% 156,600 161,400
Sheboygan, WI -3.9% 64,300 61,800
Elmira, NY -10.9% 41,100 36,600
Salem, OR 6.5% 153,300 163,200
Racine, WI -3.5% 80,300 77,500
Wausau, WI -1.6% 74,600 73,400
Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach, SC-NC 5.2% 157,000 165,100
Glens Falls, NY -0.2% 56,900 56,800
Chattanooga, TN-GA 4.9% 247,500 259,700
Port St. Lucie, FL 11.2% 133,100 148,000
Cape Girardeau, MO-IL -9.1% 46,000 41,800
Augusta-Richmond County, GA-SC 9.6% 220,500 241,700
Johnson City, TN 0.7% 80,300 80,900
Mount Vernon-Anacortes, WA 3.5% 48,300 50,000
Tyler, TX 11.4% 96,500 107,500
Lynchburg, VA -4.2% 108,700 104,100
St. Cloud, MN 6.8% 103,500 110,500
Vallejo-Fairfield, CA 7.2% 128,800 138,100
Atlantic City-Hammonton, NJ -10.7% 149,700 133,700
Toledo, OH 1.4% 309,400 313,600
Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent, FL 5.1% 167,900 176,400
Lancaster, PA 6.0% 239,300 253,600
Winchester, VA-WV 11.0% 57,500 63,800
Kennewick-Richland, WA 19.5% 93,700 112,000
Midland, TX 27.8% 69,500 88,800
Great Falls, MT 0.8% 35,600 35,900
Green Bay, WI 3.2% 169,700 175,100
Fort Wayne, IN 1.9% 216,700 220,800
Medford, OR 3.5% 83,600 86,500
Jefferson City, MO -3.9% 80,100 77,000
Tuscaloosa, AL 7.6% 100,300 107,900
Prescott, AZ -2.7% 64,100 62,400
Duluth, MN-WI 1.8% 135,000 137,400
Idaho Falls, ID 8.5% 60,200 65,300
Chico, CA 8.5% 76,600 83,100
Davenport-Moline-Rock Island, IA-IL -2.4% 188,600 184,100
Winston-Salem, NC 0.2% 261,300 261,700
Niles-Benton Harbor, MI -5.3% 65,600 62,100
Erie, PA -3.5% 133,900 129,200
Cape Coral-Fort Myers, FL 15.1% 225,100 259,100
South Bend-Mishawaka, IN-MI -1.3% 143,900 142,100
Greeley, CO 25.5% 82,500 103,500
Eau Claire, WI -0.8% 84,900 84,200
Tulsa, OK 3.1% 435,200 448,600
Grand Junction, CO -5.9% 64,700 60,900
Pocatello, ID 1.9% 36,100 36,800
Springfield, MO 6.6% 201,800 215,100
Oshkosh-Neenah, WI 4.0% 93,300 97,000
Binghamton, NY -8.6% 114,200 104,400
Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin, SC 8.5% 382,400 415,000
Topeka, KS 3.5% 110,000 113,900
Roanoke, VA 1.2% 162,700 164,700
San Antonio-New Braunfels, TX 22.7% 858,200 1,053,000
Memphis, TN-MS-AR 0.4% 642,500 645,300
Waterloo-Cedar Falls, IA 0.4% 90,100 90,500
Sebastian-Vero Beach, FL 6.1% 49,500 52,500
Lubbock, TX 14.4% 129,300 147,900
Peoria, IL -6.8% 187,900 175,200
Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA-NJ 5.1% 346,100 363,900
Rapid City, SD 7.6% 63,500 68,300
Knoxville, TN 6.0% 373,700 396,200
St. George, UT 18.2% 54,900 64,900
Baton Rouge, LA 7.8% 379,700 409,500
Spokane-Spokane Valley, WA 4.1% 235,800 245,500
Louisville/Jefferson County, KY-IN 10.4% 613,400 677,100
Montgomery, AL -2.3% 179,100 175,000
Dayton, OH 0.2% 389,800 390,600
Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville, FL 2.1% 211,900 216,400
Harrisonburg, VA 8.6% 63,600 69,100
Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL 10.1% 1,218,400 1,341,100
Greensboro-High Point, NC -2.4% 370,300 361,500
Las Cruces, NM 4.8% 69,300 72,600
Appleton, WI 6.9% 119,700 128,000
Cheyenne, WY 5.6% 44,800 47,300
New Orleans-Metairie, LA 7.1% 537,900 576,300
Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin, FL 8.8% 105,500 114,800
Birmingham-Hoover, AL -1.8% 534,800 525,200
Eugene, OR 2.2% 157,700 161,200
Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway, AR 2.4% 348,300 356,500
Billings, MT 5.5% 81,500 86,000
Jacksonville, FL 9.7% 628,400 689,500
Wichita, KS -2.3% 307,800 300,600
Reno, NV 2.7% 222,200 228,200
Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers, AR-MO 23.1% 208,700 256,900
Dubuque, IA 7.0% 55,800 59,700
Oklahoma City, OK 10.0% 580,600 638,700
Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL 15.7% 1,085,100 1,255,100
Hattiesburg, MS 5.7% 61,400 64,900
Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI 3.8% 1,945,000 2,018,700
Ogden-Clearfield, UT 14.0% 223,800 255,100
Jackson, MS 3.2% 271,800 280,500
Cleveland-Elyria, OH 0.1% 1,069,100 1,069,800
Harrisburg-Carlisle, PA 4.1% 332,900 346,500
Cedar Rapids, IA 4.6% 138,800 145,200
Akron, OH -1.1% 342,400 338,700
Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ 5.7% 1,919,700 2,029,500
La Crosse-Onalaska, WI-MN 6.6% 75,200 80,200
Columbus, IN 18.3% 45,900 54,300
Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC -0.8% 772,500 766,000
Greenville, NC 1.5% 77,700 78,900
Grand Forks, ND-MN 5.0% 53,800 56,500
Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach, FL 10.4% 2,418,300 2,669,500
Ocean City, NJ 5.3% 43,200 45,500
Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls, NY 2.5% 548,100 561,600
Kingston, NY -0.6% 63,000 62,600
Anchorage, AK 5.6% 168,400 177,900
Savannah, GA 12.7% 160,900 181,300
Tucson, AZ -2.8% 384,400 373,600
Albuquerque, NM -1.0% 398,400 394,500
North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton, FL 14.7% 269,500 309,100
Syracuse, NY -0.4% 320,700 319,300
Boise City, ID 16.3% 274,900 319,700
Bremerton-Silverdale, WA 2.4% 87,900 90,000
Grand Rapids-Wyoming, MI 14.5% 488,800 559,600
Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX 16.2% 2,623,000 3,048,100
Columbia, SC 7.6% 368,500 396,500
Cincinnati, OH-KY-IN 4.7% 1,051,000 1,100,500
Sacramento--Roseville--Arden-Arcade, CA 6.3% 918,100 975,800
Sioux Falls, SD 14.1% 134,500 153,400
Kalamazoo-Portage, MI 3.7% 145,200 150,500
Bismarck, ND 17.4% 62,600 73,500
Pittsburgh, PA 2.5% 1,147,700 1,176,100
Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson, IN 12.0% 958,000 1,072,800
Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA 3.9% 297,200 308,900
Asheville, NC 8.0% 176,400 190,500
Mankato-North Mankato, MN 6.6% 54,900 58,500
Salt Lake City, UT 17.2% 620,200 727,000
Fairbanks, AK -1.8% 38,000 37,300
St. Louis, MO-IL 1.8% 1,357,300 1,381,800
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA 4.9% 5,777,600 6,058,300
Lafayette-West Lafayette, IN 14.4% 93,000 106,400
Santa Maria-Santa Barbara, CA 6.2% 175,100 185,900
Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia, NC-SC 14.4% 1,034,300 1,183,700
Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford, VA 5.4% 74,700 78,700
Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin, TN 23.2% 800,500 986,600
Morgantown, WV 15.5% 61,900 71,500
Rochester, NY 1.7% 520,200 528,800
Bellingham, WA 8.9% 86,500 94,200
Napa, CA 11.6% 65,400 73,000
Charleston-North Charleston, SC 17.1% 304,500 356,500
Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX 19.7% 3,041,100 3,640,600
Bend-Redmond, OR 14.5% 71,100 81,400
Urban Honolulu, HI 5.6% 457,700 483,500
Lansing-East Lansing, MI 2.5% 228,300 234,100
Springfield, IL 2.8% 111,600 114,700
Santa Rosa, CA 7.3% 190,300 204,100
San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande, CA 11.5% 103,600 115,500
Naples-Immokalee-Marco Island, FL 16.5% 127,000 147,900
Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis, WI 0.3% 860,600 863,100
Olympia-Tumwater, WA 12.0% 104,100 116,600
Wilmington, NC 8.7% 117,600 127,800
Flagstaff, AZ 0.9% 66,100 66,700
Richmond, VA 9.1% 621,600 678,200
Omaha-Council Bluffs, NE-IA 8.5% 469,000 508,700
Columbus, OH 13.3% 962,800 1,091,200
Logan, UT-ID 12.0% 55,100 61,700
Auburn-Opelika, AL 21.8% 54,600 66,500
Kansas City, MO-KS 7.4% 1,009,900 1,084,700
College Station-Bryan, TX 23.3% 97,100 119,700
Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD 4.2% 2,818,700 2,937,500
Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY 4.4% 447,700 467,200
Athens-Clarke County, GA 6.7% 91,500 97,600
Rochester, MN 4.9% 113,900 119,500
Fargo, ND-MN 20.3% 119,800 144,100
Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI 2.8% 4,561,100 4,686,800
Lexington-Fayette, KY 10.8% 254,400 281,900
Des Moines-West Des Moines, IA 12.5% 326,300 367,200
Colorado Springs, CO 9.2% 261,200 285,300
San Diego-Carlsbad, CA 9.8% 1,322,800 1,453,000
Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro, OR-WA 11.8% 1,050,600 1,174,800
Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell, GA 12.1% 2,463,100 2,762,100
Huntsville, AL 9.0% 214,000 233,200
Lincoln, NE 9.3% 174,400 190,700
Provo-Orem, UT 30.8% 191,200 250,100
Tallahassee, FL 1.6% 178,500 181,400
Baltimore-Columbia-Towson, MD 6.7% 1,322,300 1,410,600
New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA 8.6% 8,902,100 9,665,300
Santa Cruz-Watsonville, CA 5.2% 96,500 101,500
Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, WA 13.4% 1,778,600 2,017,800
Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI 9.1% 1,846,800 2,014,500
Bloomington, IN 0.7% 76,400 76,900
Gainesville, FL 7.1% 134,700 144,200
Trenton, NJ 11.0% 241,500 268,100
Santa Fe, NM -3.9% 66,800 64,200
Champaign-Urbana, IL -3.5% 112,700 108,700
Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO 16.4% 1,253,300 1,459,100
Missoula, MT 6.9% 56,900 60,800
State College, PA 3.1% 74,900 77,200
Charlottesville, VA 9.4% 106,900 116,900
Bloomington, IL -2.4% 96,400 94,100
Austin-Round Rock, TX 31.9% 783,800 1,033,800
Madison, WI 11.3% 363,300 404,200
Raleigh, NC 19.3% 524,200 625,600
Fort Collins, CO 22.8% 137,100 168,400
Durham-Chapel Hill, NC 12.0% 281,000 314,800
San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA 15.0% 2,079,600 2,392,400
Iowa City, IA 15.0% 90,200 103,700
San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA 17.9% 928,800 1,095,300
Columbia, MO 12.1% 90,100 101,000
Ames, IA 13.3% 47,500 53,800
Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV 8.8% 3,026,900 3,292,600
Lawrence, KS 3.3% 52,100 53,800
Ithaca, NY 13.0% 58,300 65,900
Ann Arbor, MI 11.2% 201,600 224,100
Corvallis, OR 11.5% 38,400 42,800
Boulder, CO 14.7% 166,800 191,400
SOURCE: BLS seasonally adjusted data. October estimates are preliminary,