Vehicle Ownership in U.S. Cities Data and Map

Some cities and areas of the country are much more auto-dependent than others.

One way to assess a city's reliance on cars is to compare shares of households without access to vehicles. An estimated 8.7 percent of U.S. households were without vehicles in 2016. Car-free households are generally much more common in densely-populated urban areas and high poverty neighborhoods where residents can't afford vehicle ownership. Research also suggests younger families and one-person households are more likely to not own a car.

Another useful measure of vehicle ownership for cities is the number of vehicles per household. According to Census survey estimates, there were about 1.8 vehicles available per U.S. household in 2016.

Both vehicle statistics are shown below for jurisdictions with populations exceeding 100,000:

Jurisdiction 2015 Households Without Vehicles 2016 Households Without Vehicles 2015 Vehicles Per Household 2016 Vehicles Per Household
New York, New York 54.5% 54.4% 0.63 0.63
Newark, New Jersey 39.2% 40.3% 0.86 0.89
Jersey City, New Jersey 40.1% 37.1% 0.81 0.85
Washington, District of Columbia 36.2% 37.3% 0.89 0.86
Boston, Massachusetts 35.4% 33.8% 0.94 0.94
Cambridge, Massachusetts 30.9% 36.8% 0.90 0.86
Paterson, New Jersey 33.6% 33.0% 1.05 1.00
Hartford, Connecticut 30.3% 32.6% 1.00 0.99
San Francisco, California 31.2% 29.9% 1.07 1.10
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 31.1% 29.5% 1.03 1.05
New Haven, Connecticut 30.4% 29.2% 1.01 1.10
Baltimore, Maryland 30.7% 28.9% 1.08 1.08
Buffalo, New York 30.0% 28.2% 1.03 1.08
Syracuse, New York 26.4% 29.2% 1.09 1.08
Elizabeth, New Jersey 28.3% 25.8% 1.08 1.17
Chicago, Illinois 26.5% 27.5% 1.11 1.12
Rochester, New York 26.8% 26.5% 1.10 1.14
Detroit, Michigan 25.3% 24.7% 1.13 1.15
Yonkers, New York 24.6% 23.5% 1.26 1.25
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 23.9% 23.4% 1.18 1.16
Cleveland, Ohio 23.5% 23.7% 1.15 1.19
Springfield, Massachusetts 20.8% 22.2% 1.31 1.26
Berkeley, California 19.8% 23.1% 1.29 1.23
Bridgeport, Connecticut 22.1% 20.1% 1.37 1.42
Dayton, Ohio 22.2% 19.0% 1.32 1.39
Waterbury, Connecticut 20.4% 20.6% 1.36 1.32
Cincinnati, Ohio 19.3% 21.2% 1.27 1.30
Providence, Rhode Island 21.7% 18.0% 1.21 1.27
Worcester, Massachusetts 19.6% 19.3% 1.30 1.30
New Orleans, Louisiana 18.8% 20.2% 1.28 1.26
Miami, Florida 19.9% 18.6% 1.19 1.24
St. Louis, Missouri 19.7% 18.5% 1.25 1.27
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 17.9% 18.7% 1.30 1.34
Allentown, Pennsylvania 19.2% 16.9% 1.31 1.33
Minneapolis, Minnesota 18.2% 17.1% 1.33 1.35
Lowell, Massachusetts 17.6% 16.9% 1.35 1.52
Richmond, Virginia 16.4% 18.0% 1.39 1.42
Oakland, California 17.3% 16.7% 1.44 1.45
Honolulu, Hawaii 16.6% 17.2% 1.40 1.40
Seattle, Washington 16.6% 17.1% 1.40 1.39
Peoria, Illinois 16.5% 15.4% 1.44 1.45
Atlanta, Georgia 15.2% 16.4% 1.31 1.28
Paradise, Nevada 15.2% 15.4% 1.41 1.50
Portland, Oregon 14.7% 13.7% 1.49 1.49
Birmingham, Alabama 15.8% 12.3% 1.41 1.48
Toledo, Ohio 14.7% 13.3% 1.45 1.43
Savannah, Georgia 13.9% 13.7% 1.45 1.43
Akron, Ohio 14.5% 12.9% 1.42 1.46
St. Paul, Minnesota 13.3% 13.5% 1.52 1.52
Macon-Bibb County, Georgia 13.2% 13.3% 1.55 1.60
Arlington, Virginia 13.4% 12.7% 1.38 1.40
Tucson, Arizona 14.4% 11.7% 1.49 1.54
South Bend, Indiana 12.5% 13.6% 1.44 1.43
Lansing, Michigan 12.6% 13.4% 1.41 1.45
Norfolk, Virginia 10.6% 15.0% 1.58 1.54
Rockford, Illinois 11.9% 13.4% 1.54 1.46
East Los Angeles, California 13.0% 12.0% 1.60 1.75
Everett, Washington 13.2% 11.6% 1.64 1.65
Hialeah, Florida 12.6% 12.2% 1.53 1.58
Shreveport, Louisiana 11.0% 13.6% 1.53 1.50
Grand Rapids, Michigan 12.5% 12.0% 1.51 1.56
Los Angeles, California 12.1% 12.2% 1.59 1.62
Memphis, Tennessee 11.8% 12.5% 1.49 1.47
Ann Arbor, Michigan 12.4% 11.5% 1.45 1.44
Eugene, Oregon 12.3% 11.6% 1.54 1.64
Fresno, California 11.4% 12.4% 1.64 1.63
North Charleston, South Carolina 12.7% 10.7% 1.52 1.46
Columbia, South Carolina 12.9% 10.4% 1.47 1.55
Evansville, Indiana 11.7% 11.5% 1.54 1.48
Glendale, California 11.7% 11.4% 1.65 1.67
Sunrise Manor, Nevada 11.0% 11.8% 1.60 1.66
Kansas City, Missouri 11.4% 11.3% 1.55 1.58
San Bernardino, California 11.7% 11.1% 1.71 1.80
Louisville/Jefferson County, Kentucky 11.7% 10.9% 1.60 1.61
Springfield, Illinois 11.9% 10.6% 1.52 1.52
Madison, Wisconsin 11.2% 11.2% 1.51 1.50
Chattanooga, Tennessee 11.8% 10.6% 1.53 1.54
Topeka, Kansas 9.7% 12.4% 1.57 1.52
Gainesville, Florida 10.4% 11.4% 1.48 1.44
Baton Rouge, Louisiana 10.4% 11.4% 1.54 1.55
Manchester, New Hampshire 8.1% 13.5% 1.60 1.56
Tampa, Florida 11.4% 10.1% 1.48 1.49
Clearwater, Florida 10.6% 10.9% 1.49 1.45
Stockton, California 10.5% 10.8% 1.80 1.83
Salt Lake City, Utah 10.6% 10.6% 1.60 1.62
Winston-Salem, North Carolina 11.3% 9.9% 1.63 1.68
Pasadena, California 9.7% 11.4% 1.62 1.54
Hollywood, Florida 11.4% 9.7% 1.52 1.53
Columbus, Georgia 12.4% 8.6% 1.52 1.68
Knoxville, Tennessee 9.7% 11.3% 1.57 1.59
Reno, Nevada 10.0% 10.8% 1.64 1.73
Las Vegas, Nevada 10.2% 10.5% 1.62 1.63
Tempe, Arizona 11.1% 9.4% 1.57 1.65
Long Beach, California 10.4% 10.1% 1.64 1.69
Spokane, Washington 10.9% 9.4% 1.68 1.66
Athens-Clarke County, Georgia 11.2% 9.0% 1.52 1.67
Alexandria, Virginia 10.1% 10.0% 1.38 1.34
Pueblo, Colorado 12.0% 8.1% 1.63 1.67
Stamford, Connecticut 11.0% 8.9% 1.67 1.63
Richmond, California 11.7% 8.1% 1.68 1.89
Inglewood, California 9.8% 9.8% 1.63 1.69
Montgomery, Alabama 8.5% 11.0% 1.68 1.62
Dallas, Texas 10.2% 9.1% 1.56 1.59
Indianapolis, Indiana 10.5% 8.7% 1.54 1.63
Columbus, Ohio 9.8% 9.4% 1.54 1.55
El Monte, California 10.2% 8.9% 1.83 2.05
West Palm Beach, Florida 8.6% 10.4% 1.46 1.43
El Cajon, California 10.4% 8.6% 1.67 1.73
Denver, Colorado 9.6% 9.4% 1.58 1.62
Tacoma, Washington 9.7% 9.3% 1.71 1.70
Springfield, Missouri 9.7% 9.3% 1.56 1.56
St. Petersburg, Florida 9.6% 9.3% 1.49 1.52
Kansas City, Kansas 10.1% 8.6% 1.78 1.72
Lafayette, Louisiana 10.6% 8.0% 1.60 1.60
Wilmington, North Carolina 10.1% 8.5% 1.63 1.56
Sacramento, California 10.0% 8.6% 1.61 1.65
Jackson, Mississippi 11.0% 7.6% 1.60 1.68
Durham, North Carolina 9.8% 8.7% 1.56 1.63
Arden-Arcade, California 8.8% 9.6% 1.53 1.58
Augusta-Richmond County, Georgia 9.3% 9.1% 1.68 1.69
Gresham, Oregon 9.8% 8.5% 1.68 1.87
Des Moines, Iowa 8.5% 9.6% 1.70 1.71
Tulsa, Oklahoma 9.3% 8.8% 1.63 1.62
Mobile, Alabama 9.7% 8.3% 1.60 1.65
Newport News, Virginia 9.5% 8.4% 1.63 1.69
High Point, North Carolina 8.7% 9.1% 1.65 1.66
Waco, Texas 8.7% 8.8% 1.62 1.67
Orlando, Florida 9.4% 8.2% 1.45 1.50
Phoenix, Arizona 9.1% 8.4% 1.66 1.71
Omaha, Nebraska 8.2% 9.2% 1.68 1.66
Glendale, Arizona 8.4% 9.0% 1.66 1.72
Lancaster, California 9.6% 7.7% 1.78 1.77
Brownsville, Texas 7.6% 9.6% 1.73 1.73
Little Rock, Arkansas 8.2% 8.9% 1.59 1.58
Green Bay, Wisconsin 8.6% 8.5% 1.61 1.66
Fort Lauderdale, Florida 8.8% 8.2% 1.45 1.49
Jacksonville, Florida 8.3% 8.7% 1.62 1.62
Davenport, Iowa 9.5% 7.4% 1.70 1.66
Rochester, Minnesota 7.8% 8.9% 1.68 1.68
San Antonio, Texas 8.4% 8.3% 1.68 1.71
Vallejo, California 9.0% 7.6% 1.94 2.01
Beaumont, Texas 8.8% 7.7% 1.57 1.62
Corpus Christi, Texas 8.5% 7.9% 1.75 1.77
Houston, Texas 8.3% 8.1% 1.58 1.59
Burbank, California 7.6% 8.7% 1.65 1.71
Fayetteville, North Carolina 8.9% 7.0% 1.65 1.64
El Paso, Texas 7.4% 8.4% 1.79 1.82
Fargo, North Dakota 7.0% 8.8% 1.66 1.67
Kent, Washington 7.0% 8.7% 1.98 1.85
Wichita Falls, Texas 8.7% 6.8% 1.75 1.63
Charleston, South Carolina 8.2% 7.2% 1.64 1.55
Albuquerque, New Mexico 8.5% 6.9% 1.69 1.75
Tallahassee, Florida 8.4% 6.9% 1.54 1.65
Boulder, Colorado 8.1% 7.3% 1.63 1.72
Modesto, California 8.1% 7.2% 1.82 1.86
Pompano Beach, Florida 7.8% 7.5% 1.49 1.44
Salem, Oregon 8.3% 7.0% 1.70 1.71
Warren, Michigan 7.8% 7.2% 1.65 1.73
Daly City, California 6.4% 8.6% 1.96 1.95
Lexington, Kentucky 7.2% 7.4% 1.64 1.70
Columbia, Missouri 9.0% 5.5% 1.66 1.68
Sandy Springs, Georgia 6.9% 7.6% 1.57 1.57
Hampton, Virginia 6.7% 7.8% 1.75 1.69
McAllen, Texas 6.9% 7.6% 1.72 1.72
Wichita, Kansas 7.7% 6.7% 1.73 1.80
San Angelo, Texas 8.2% 6.1% 1.64 1.66
Las Cruces, New Mexico 6.1% 8.2% 1.75 1.73
Mesa, Arizona 7.4% 6.8% 1.67 1.78
Fort Wayne, Indiana 8.0% 6.0% 1.65 1.69
Concord, California 6.9% 7.0% 1.94 1.86
Nashville-Davidson, Tennessee 7.9% 5.9% 1.66 1.72
Joliet, Illinois 7.2% 6.6% 1.83 1.91
Cedar Rapids, Iowa 7.8% 5.9% 1.72 1.75
Aurora, Colorado 7.4% 6.3% 1.82 1.85
Palmdale, California 8.1% 5.6% 1.95 2.02
Escondido, California 8.0% 5.7% 1.88 1.95
Columbia, Maryland 8.6% 5.0% 1.72 1.81
Hillsboro, Oregon 7.6% 5.9% 1.70 1.86
Metairie, Louisiana 6.3% 7.2% 1.60 1.60
Greensboro, North Carolina 6.1% 7.3% 1.64 1.61
Abilene, Texas 5.4% 8.0% 1.71 1.69
Charlotte, North Carolina 7.4% 6.0% 1.65 1.71
Independence, Missouri 7.5% 5.8% 1.70 1.70
San Buenaventura, California 7.2% 6.1% 1.85 1.91
Victorville, California 6.5% 6.6% 1.92 1.95
Tyler, Texas 6.7% 6.4% 1.61 1.63
Vancouver, Washington 5.5% 7.6% 1.72 1.75
Santa Ana, California 7.3% 5.7% 2.21 2.25
San Diego, California 6.6% 6.3% 1.76 1.80
Anchorage, Alaska 6.8% 6.1% 1.84 1.95
Huntsville, Alabama 6.6% 6.3% 1.68 1.70
Lubbock, Texas 7.3% 5.6% 1.67 1.74
Austin, Texas 6.9% 6.0% 1.65 1.65
Visalia, California 6.9% 5.9% 1.75 1.84
North Las Vegas, Nevada 7.0% 5.6% 1.84 1.89
Killeen, Texas 6.3% 6.2% 1.72 1.79
Lakeland, Florida 7.0% 5.6% 1.53 1.54
Laredo, Texas 6.5% 5.9% 1.87 1.85
Bellevue, Washington 5.5% 6.9% 1.74 1.81
Fairfield, California 4.8% 7.4% 2.03 2.01
Sioux Falls, South Dakota 6.6% 5.6% 1.79 1.82
Lincoln, Nebraska 6.3% 5.8% 1.74 1.78
Lakewood, Colorado 5.5% 6.5% 1.85 1.84
Salinas, California 6.0% 5.8% 1.96 2.09
Pomona, California 6.5% 5.3% 2.07 2.27
Miami Gardens, Florida 6.5% 5.3% 1.75 1.71
Santa Clara, California 6.0% 5.8% 1.87 1.81
Hayward, California 6.0% 5.7% 2.08 2.12
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 6.0% 5.7% 1.78 1.82
Santa Maria, California 6.2% 5.5% 2.00 1.98
Bakersfield, California 5.5% 6.1% 1.93 1.92
Pasadena, Texas 5.8% 5.7% 1.78 1.88
Billings, Montana 4.9% 6.7% 2.05 1.91
Renton, Washington 5.5% 6.0% 1.78 1.87
Greeley, Colorado 5.7% 5.8% 1.92 1.92
Santa Rosa, California 5.3% 6.2% 1.86 1.88
Raleigh, North Carolina 5.3% 6.0% 1.69 1.74
Spring Valley, Nevada 6.1% 5.2% 1.64 1.62
Norman, Oklahoma 7.0% 4.3% 1.83 1.87
Fullerton, California 5.6% 5.5% 1.96 2.02
College Station, Texas 4.7% 6.3% 1.78 1.86
Rialto, California 6.5% 4.5% 2.22 2.22
Fort Worth, Texas 6.1% 4.8% 1.80 1.83
Anaheim, California 5.7% 5.2% 2.01 2.05
Riverside, California 5.4% 5.3% 2.05 2.04
Torrance, California 5.4% 5.2% 1.91 1.95
San Jose, California 5.5% 5.1% 2.07 2.12
Sunnyvale, California 5.6% 4.9% 1.83 1.78
Westminster, Colorado 5.9% 4.6% 1.96 1.91
Pembroke Pines, Florida 6.0% 4.3% 1.83 1.83
Colorado Springs, Colorado 5.8% 4.5% 1.80 1.85
Roseville, California 6.1% 4.2% 1.87 1.95
San Mateo, California 5.2% 5.1% 1.84 1.87
Brandon, Florida 3.7% 6.6% 1.75 1.69
Amarillo, Texas 6.1% 4.2% 1.73 1.81
Norwalk, California 4.6% 5.5% 2.21 2.27
Peoria, Arizona 5.6% 4.5% 1.85 1.91
Garden Grove, California 5.3% 4.6% 2.23 2.19
Elgin, Illinois 4.8% 5.1% 1.85 1.95
Chula Vista, California 4.9% 4.9% 1.99 2.01
Jurupa Valley, California 4.8% 4.9% 2.39 2.32
Fremont, California 4.5% 5.2% 2.10 2.12
Davie, Florida 6.5% 3.2% 1.81 1.90
Odessa, Texas 4.4% 5.2% 1.83 1.78
Clovis, California 5.5% 4.0% 1.92 1.98
Midland, Texas 5.7% 3.7% 2.05 1.93
Irving, Texas 4.5% 4.9% 1.72 1.75
Sterling Heights, Michigan 5.1% 4.2% 1.85 1.89
Boise City, Idaho 4.7% 4.6% 1.81 1.70
West Valley City, Utah 5.0% 4.3% 2.16 2.10
West Covina, California 4.1% 5.2% 2.30 2.22
Coral Springs, Florida 4.1% 5.1% 1.88 1.81
Fort Collins, Colorado 4.4% 4.8% 1.89 1.86
Palm Bay, Florida 6.2% 3.0% 1.60 1.75
Oceanside, California 5.6% 3.6% 1.89 1.92
Irvine, California 5.0% 4.0% 1.77 1.83
Antioch, California 5.7% 3.3% 2.14 2.24
Costa Mesa, California 6.0% 3.0% 1.79 2.00
Chesapeake, Virginia 4.5% 4.4% 2.02 1.99
Garland, Texas 4.6% 4.4% 1.99 2.04
Oxnard, California 4.3% 4.6% 2.20 2.10
Scottsdale, Arizona 4.4% 4.5% 1.67 1.70
Orange, California 3.7% 5.0% 2.12 2.16
Spring Hill, Florida 3.9% 4.7% 1.65 1.75
Ontario, California 4.6% 3.9% 2.04 2.15
Chandler, Arizona 4.2% 4.2% 1.82 1.85
Mesquite, Texas 4.7% 3.7% 1.92 1.96
Arlington, Texas 4.7% 3.7% 1.85 1.89
Provo, Utah 3.9% 4.5% 2.11 2.17
Lewisville, Texas 4.1% 4.3% 1.76 1.78
Virginia Beach, Virginia 4.9% 3.4% 1.93 1.98
Denton, Texas 4.9% 3.1% 1.78 1.80
Moreno Valley, California 5.0% 2.9% 2.22 2.32
Aurora, Illinois 4.0% 3.8% 1.98 1.94
Henderson, Nevada 2.8% 5.0% 1.79 1.74
Naperville, Illinois 3.3% 4.4% 1.89 1.91
Lehigh Acres, Florida 3.5% 4.2% 1.85 1.81
Santa Clarita, California 4.0% 3.7% 2.06 2.15
Murfreesboro, Tennessee 3.8% 3.8% 1.82 1.96
The Woodlands, Texas 3.3% 4.1% 1.97 1.90
Richardson, Texas 3.7% 3.7% 1.91 1.84
Arvada, Colorado 3.7% 3.6% 2.04 2.07
Olathe, Kansas 4.6% 2.7% 2.01 2.01
Grand Prairie, Texas 3.8% 3.3% 2.03 2.03
Clarksville, Tennessee 4.7% 2.4% 1.78 1.84
Overland Park, Kansas 3.9% 3.2% 1.85 1.85
Enterprise, Nevada 2.2% 4.3% 1.87 1.85
Thousand Oaks, California 3.3% 3.2% 2.07 2.09
Thornton, Colorado 3.5% 3.0% 2.10 2.14
Vista, California 3.1% 3.3% 2.15 2.14
Simi Valley, California 2.3% 4.1% 2.26 2.29
Broken Arrow, Oklahoma 3.2% 3.0% 2.03 2.00
McKinney, Texas 3.8% 2.4% 1.89 1.95
Corona, California 3.5% 2.6% 2.17 2.29
Port St. Lucie, Florida 3.6% 2.6% 1.76 1.79
Cape Coral, Florida 3.0% 3.0% 1.72 1.78
Fontana, California 3.1% 2.7% 2.37 2.27
Downey, California 3.7% 2.1% 2.11 2.19
Rancho Cucamonga, California 2.7% 3.0% 2.15 2.12
Round Rock, Texas 2.8% 2.7% 1.93 1.99
Carlsbad, California 2.2% 3.0% 1.99 2.01
Elk Grove, California 3.4% 1.8% 2.16 2.21
Plano, Texas 2.8% 2.4% 1.90 1.93
Huntington Beach, California 2.6% 2.2% 1.98 1.99
Miramar, Florida 2.5% 2.3% 1.97 2.00
Carrollton, Texas 2.2% 2.5% 1.91 1.91
Centennial, Colorado 2.6% 1.7% 2.10 2.15
Murrieta, California 3.5% 0.7% 2.12 2.36
Highlands Ranch, Colorado 2.7% 1.5% 2.07 2.04
Cary, North Carolina 2.4% 1.4% 1.94 1.89
Pearland, Texas 2.4% 1.4% 1.99 2.18
Surprise, Arizona 2.4% 1.3% 1.87 1.87
League City, Texas 2.6% 1.0% 2.04 2.15
Gilbert, Arizona 1.9% 1.7% 2.04 2.08
West Jordan, Utah 1.9% 1.3% 2.14 2.30
Frisco, Texas 1.1% 2.0% 2.05 2.00
Temecula, California 1.0% 2.0% 2.24 2.25
Source: Governing calculations of 2015 and 2016 one-year Census American Community Survey estimates. Note that one-year estimates have high margins of error for smaller cities.

Cars Per Household for U.S. Cities Map

The following map shows numbers of vehicles per household, calculated using two-year averages from 2015 and 2016 Census survey estimates. Data is shown for the 200 most populated cities, with cities having more vehicles shaded dark orange.

Click a city to display its measures. Zoom in to view cities clustered together, or pan the map for Alaska and Hawaii.