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Income Inequality: Changes for Metro Areas

See income inequality data, as measured by the Gini index and a household income ratio.

Throughout much of the country, it's the larger cities and metro areas that tend to have the steepest income inequality.

One measure the Census Bureau computes to assess income inequality is the Gini index. This measures household income inequality using a scale of 0 to 1, where higher numbers represent greater income inequality.

Data indicate that in many larger metro areas, income inequality is growing. Between 2007 and 2012, 29 metro areas with at least a half million residents recorded a statistically significant increase in the Gini index, while only one experienced a decline.

The table below shows changes in the Gini index over the five-year period for all metro areas with at least a million residents.



 
         
Metro Area 2012 Gini Index 2007 Gini Index Change Statistically Significant Increase?
Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV 0.439 0.436 0.003 No
Raleigh-Cary, NC 0.4393 0.444 -0.0047 No
Rochester, NY 0.4429 0.435 0.0079 No
Grand Rapids-Wyoming, MI 0.4446 0.435 0.0096 No
Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro, OR-WA 0.4451 0.44 0.0051 No
Richmond, VA 0.4453 0.434 0.0113 No
Baltimore-Towson, MD 0.4519 0.448 0.0039 No
Indianapolis-Carmel, IN 0.4544 0.446 0.0084 No
San Antonio-New Braunfels, TX 0.4556 0.46 -0.0044 No
Louisville/Jefferson County, KY-IN 0.4564 0.457 -0.0006 No
Columbus, OH 0.4575 0.448 0.0095 No
Denver-Aurora-Broomfield, CO 0.4577 0.45 0.0077 No
Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL 0.4623 0.451 0.0113 No
Nashville-Davidson-Murfreesboro-Franklin, TN 0.4651 0.464 0.0011 No
Pittsburgh, PA 0.4662 0.465 0.0012 No
Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX 0.4664 0.461 0.0054 No
Oklahoma City, OK 0.4735 0.468 0.0055 No
Birmingham-Hoover, AL 0.48 0.476 0.004 No
Memphis, TN-MS-AR 0.4806 0.488 -0.0074 No
Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL 0.4831 0.48 0.0031 No
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, CA 0.4911 0.487 0.0041 No
New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island 0.5049 0.504 0.0009 No
Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC 0.4387 0.418 0.0207 Yes
Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA 0.4401 0.426 0.0141 Yes
Salt Lake City, UT 0.4418 0.411 0.0308 Yes
Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI 0.4431 0.43 0.0131 Yes
Buffalo-Niagara Falls, NY 0.4473 0.464 -0.0167 No
Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, WA 0.4479 0.441 0.0069 Yes
Las Vegas-Paradise, NV 0.4531 0.43 0.0231 Yes
Sacramento-Arden-Arcade-Roseville, CA 0.4542 0.426 0.0282 Yes
Kansas City, MO-KS 0.4545 0.436 0.0185 Yes
Phoenix-Mesa-Glendale, AZ 0.4564 0.444 0.0124 Yes
Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford, CT 0.4566 0.443 0.0136 Yes
Providence-New Bedford-Fall River, RI-MA 0.4607 0.449 0.0117 Yes
Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis, WI 0.4609 0.448 0.0129 Yes
St. Louis, MO-IL 0.4611 0.449 0.0121 Yes
Austin-Round Rock-San Marcos, TX 0.4631 0.451 0.0121 Yes
San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA 0.4662 0.451 0.0152 Yes
San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos, CA 0.4665 0.451 0.0155 Yes
Cincinnati-Middletown, OH-KY-IN 0.4668 0.453 0.0138 Yes
Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Marietta, GA 0.4723 0.453 0.0193 Yes
Detroit-Warren-Livonia, MI 0.4735 0.453 0.0205 Yes
Chicago-Joliet-Naperville, IL-IN-WI 0.4761 0.466 0.0101 Yes
Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL 0.4762 0.456 0.0202 Yes
Jacksonville, FL 0.4775 0.446 0.0315 Yes
Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD 0.4776 0.466 0.0116 Yes
Cleveland-Elyria-Mentor, OH 0.4808 0.459 0.0218 Yes
Boston-Cambridge-Quincy, MA-NH 0.4809 0.468 0.0129 Yes
Charlotte-Gastonia-Rock Hill, NC-SC 0.4813 0.459 0.0223 Yes
San Francisco-Oakland-Fremont, CA 0.4898 0.477 0.0128 Yes
New Orleans-Metairie-Kenner, LA 0.4971 0.476 0.0211 Yes
Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach, FL 0.5021 0.492 0.0101 Yes

Source: Governing calculations of 2012 and 2007 American Community Survey Estimates
 

Metro Area Gini Index Map

Of larger regions, the New York metro area had the highest estimated income inequality in 2012, while the Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News area was found to have the lowest inequality.



 

Income Inequality By Household Income Distribution

The U.S. Conference of Mayors published metro area income inequality data by considering household income distribution. Thier report grouped median household income into three categories: less than $35,000; $35,000-75,000; and greater than $75,000. In 2012, roughly a third of U.S. households fell into each group. Using these groups, the authors computed a ratio comparing the lowest and highest income distribution within each metro area. A ratio value of 1 means that the share of upper and lower-income households is equal, while higher values represents metro areas with more poorer households.



 
         
Metro Area Households Earning < $35K Households Earning $35K-$74,999 Households Earning $75K+ MSA Ratio
Abilene, TX Metro Area 41.0% 35.0% 24.0% 1.71
Akron, OH Metro Area 35.5% 34.2% 30.4% 1.17
Albany, GA Metro Area 50.5% 28.4% 21.1% 2.39
Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY Metro Area 29.2% 31.8% 39.1% 0.75
Albuquerque, NM Metro Area 38.8% 31.5% 29.7% 1.31
Alexandria, LA Metro Area 43.7% 33.1% 23.3% 1.88
Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA-NJ Metro Area 29.4% 34.8% 35.7% 0.82
Altoona, PA Metro Area 41.4% 37.4% 21.2% 1.95
Amarillo, TX Metro Area 39.5% 32.5% 28.1% 1.41
Ames, IA Metro Area 38.6% 31.0% 30.3% 1.27
Anchorage, AK Metro Area 21.9% 30.2% 48.0% 0.46
Anderson, IN Metro Area 40.2% 37.9% 21.9% 1.84
Anderson, SC Metro Area 43.9% 33.0% 23.1% 1.90
Ann Arbor, MI Metro Area 32.7% 28.6% 38.6% 0.85
Anniston-Oxford, AL Metro Area 45.4% 34.4% 20.2% 2.25
Appleton, WI Metro Area 27.2% 35.0% 37.8% 0.72
Asheville, NC Metro Area 40.0% 35.1% 25.0% 1.60
Athens-Clarke County, GA Metro Area 46.4% 27.2% 26.3% 1.76
Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Marietta, GA Metro Area 32.2% 31.9% 35.8% 0.90
Atlantic City, NJ Metro Area 34.5% 32.7% 32.7% 1.06
Auburn-Opelika, AL Metro Area 41.7% 28.7% 29.5% 1.41
Augusta-Richmond County, GA-SC Metro Area 39.5% 32.0% 28.5% 1.39
Austin-Round Rock, TX Metro Area 28.9% 31.4% 39.7% 0.73
Bakersfield, CA Metro Area 39.3% 31.8% 28.9% 1.36
Baltimore-Towson, MD Metro Area 26.2% 28.7% 45.1% 0.58
Bangor, ME Metro Area 42.3% 35.5% 22.2% 1.91
Barnstable Town, MA Metro Area 28.9% 31.8% 39.4% 0.73
Baton Rouge, LA Metro Area 36.3% 31.1% 32.7% 1.11
Battle Creek, MI Metro Area 44.5% 33.2% 22.2% 2.00
Bay City, MI Metro Area 39.3% 36.4% 24.3% 1.62
Beaumont-Port Arthur, TX Metro Area 41.3% 31.1% 27.5% 1.50
Bellingham, WA Metro Area 35.4% 33.9% 30.6% 1.16
Bend, OR Metro Area 36.2% 33.6% 30.2% 1.20
Billings, MT Metro Area 34.2% 36.4% 29.3% 1.17
Binghamton, NY Metro Area 37.6% 32.8% 29.5% 1.27
Birmingham-Hoover, AL Metro Area 38.5% 31.4% 30.1% 1.28
Bismarck, ND Metro Area 23.3% 36.3% 40.5% 0.58
Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford, VA Metro Area 42.4% 33.4% 24.2% 1.75
Bloomington, IN Metro Area 45.2% 31.3% 23.4% 1.93
Bloomington-Normal, IL Metro Area 30.3% 29.9% 39.8% 0.76
Boise City-Nampa, ID Metro Area 35.7% 36.2% 28.4% 1.26
Boston-Cambridge-Quincy, MA-NH Metro Area 26.0% 26.0% 47.9% 0.54
Boulder, CO Metro Area 26.8% 27.8% 45.5% 0.59
Bowling Green, KY Metro Area 42.1% 35.0% 22.9% 1.84
Bremerton-Silverdale, WA Metro Area 26.1% 36.0% 37.8% 0.69
Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk, CT Metro Area 23.1% 24.4% 52.5% 0.44
Brownsville-Harlingen, TX Metro Area 55.1% 28.4% 16.4% 3.36
Brunswick, GA Metro Area 39.1% 34.4% 26.4% 1.48
Buffalo-Niagara Falls, NY Metro Area 36.7% 31.7% 31.7% 1.16
Burlington, NC Metro Area 44.5% 32.3% 23.1% 1.93
Burlington-South Burlington, VT Metro Area 27.5% 32.6% 39.9% 0.69
Canton-Massillon, OH Metro Area 38.3% 36.9% 24.8% 1.54
Cape Coral-Fort Myers, FL Metro Area 37.0% 36.4% 26.4% 1.40
Casper, WY Metro Area 31.0% 32.7% 36.3% 0.85
Cedar Rapids, IA Metro Area 30.4% 33.1% 36.4% 0.84
Champaign-Urbana, IL Metro Area 37.8% 31.5% 30.8% 1.23
Charleston, WV Metro Area 38.3% 34.2% 27.5% 1.39
Charleston-North Charleston, SC Metro Area 34.1% 35.6% 30.4% 1.12
Charlotte-Gastonia-Concord, NC-SC Metro Area 33.0% 32.6% 34.5% 0.96
Charlottesville, VA Metro Area 27.9% 30.4% 41.8% 0.67
Chattanooga, TN-GA Metro Area 41.0% 32.5% 26.4% 1.55
Cheyenne, WY Metro Area 31.5% 32.5% 35.9% 0.88
Chicago-Naperville-Joliet, IL-IN-WI Metro Area 30.4% 30.1% 39.5% 0.77
Chico, CA Metro Area 43.1% 32.2% 24.5% 1.76
Cincinnati-Middletown, OH-KY-IN Metro Area 34.1% 31.8% 34.0% 1.00
Clarksville, TN-KY Metro Area 39.4% 37.9% 22.7% 1.74
Cleveland, TN Metro Area 46.7% 33.2% 20.1% 2.32
Cleveland-Elyria-Mentor, OH Metro Area 38.9% 31.1% 30.1% 1.29
Coeur d'Alene, ID Metro Area 35.7% 38.6% 25.7% 1.39
College Station-Bryan, TX Metro Area 44.5% 29.1% 26.3% 1.69
Colorado Springs, CO Metro Area 29.8% 33.4% 36.7% 0.81
Columbia, MO Metro Area 41.9% 29.1% 29.1% 1.44
Columbia, SC Metro Area 35.7% 34.4% 30.0% 1.19
Columbus, GA-AL Metro Area 41.8% 32.8% 25.2% 1.66
Columbus, IN Metro Area 33.2% 34.4% 32.5% 1.02
Columbus, OH Metro Area 32.3% 33.1% 34.5% 0.94
Corpus Christi, TX Metro Area 36.6% 34.0% 29.3% 1.25
Corvallis, OR Metro Area 37.8% 26.6% 35.7% 1.06
Cumberland, MD-WV Metro Area 49.2% 31.3% 19.5% 2.52
Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX Metro Area 30.6% 31.9% 37.5% 0.82
Dalton, GA Metro Area 52.0% 31.9% 16.0% 3.25
Danville, IL Metro Area 43.7% 30.8% 25.5% 1.71
Danville, VA Metro Area 47.4% 33.2% 19.2% 2.47
Davenport-Moline-Rock Island, IA-IL Metro Area 34.4% 34.0% 31.8% 1.08
Dayton, OH Metro Area 38.5% 34.2% 27.2% 1.42
Decatur, AL Metro Area 44.0% 30.3% 25.8% 1.71
Decatur, IL Metro Area 41.4% 32.0% 26.6% 1.56
Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach, FL Metro Area 43.6% 34.9% 21.5% 2.03
Denver-Aurora, CO Metro Area 28.0% 31.3% 40.7% 0.69
Des Moines, IA Metro Area 28.4% 33.7% 38.1% 0.75
Detroit-Warren-Livonia, MI Metro Area 36.0% 31.0% 33.1% 1.09
Dothan, AL Metro Area 47.2% 29.8% 23.1% 2.04
Dover, DE Metro Area 30.8% 34.1% 35.1% 0.88
Dubuque, IA Metro Area 36.1% 34.6% 29.5% 1.22
Duluth, MN-WI Metro Area 37.7% 36.3% 26.0% 1.45
Durham, NC Metro Area 35.8% 31.3% 32.8% 1.09
Eau Claire, WI Metro Area 38.3% 34.9% 26.8% 1.43
El Centro, CA Metro Area 46.5% 30.5% 23.0% 2.02
El Paso, TX Metro Area 44.7% 32.2% 22.9% 1.95
Elizabethtown, KY Metro Area 35.7% 36.6% 27.6% 1.29
Elkhart-Goshen, IN Metro Area 36.6% 39.2% 24.2% 1.51
Elmira, NY Metro Area 42.4% 30.0% 27.6% 1.54
Erie, PA Metro Area 38.6% 34.1% 27.4% 1.41
Eugene-Springfield, OR Metro Area 43.4% 31.7% 24.7% 1.76
Evansville, IN-KY Metro Area 38.8% 33.4% 27.8% 1.40
Fairbanks, AK Metro Area 25.6% 33.5% 40.9% 0.63
Fargo, ND-MN Metro Area 31.7% 36.2% 32.0% 0.99
Farmington, NM Metro Area 40.9% 29.0% 30.0% 1.36
Fayetteville, NC Metro Area 38.3% 38.6% 23.1% 1.66
Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers, AR-MO Metro Area 37.7% 35.5% 26.8% 1.41
Flagstaff, AZ Metro Area 39.4% 32.3% 28.2% 1.40
Flint, MI Metro Area 43.6% 34.1% 22.2% 1.96
Florence, SC Metro Area 46.0% 30.3% 23.7% 1.94
Florence-Muscle Shoals, AL Metro Area 42.4% 32.9% 24.7% 1.72
Fond du Lac, WI Metro Area 29.1% 42.0% 29.0% 1.00
Fort Collins-Loveland, CO Metro Area 32.2% 30.5% 37.3% 0.86
Fort Smith, AR-OK Metro Area 48.6% 34.0% 17.4% 2.79
Fort Walton Beach-Crestview-Destin, FL Metro Area 32.3% 35.6% 32.2% 1.00
Fort Wayne, IN Metro Area 34.5% 37.9% 27.6% 1.25
Fresno, CA Metro Area 43.3% 30.6% 26.1% 1.66
Gadsden, AL Metro Area 50.7% 31.2% 18.0% 2.82
Gainesville, FL Metro Area 45.7% 26.6% 27.8% 1.64
Gainesville, GA Metro Area 35.4% 35.8% 28.8% 1.23
Glens Falls, NY Metro Area 32.2% 37.0% 30.8% 1.05
Goldsboro, NC Metro Area 47.1% 31.6% 21.3% 2.21
Grand Forks, ND-MN Metro Area 40.9% 30.8% 28.3% 1.45
Grand Junction, CO Metro Area 36.0% 36.4% 27.6% 1.30
Grand Rapids-Wyoming, MI Metro Area 34.5% 35.9% 29.7% 1.16
Great Falls, MT Metro Area 42.1% 33.9% 24.2% 1.74
Greeley, CO Metro Area 30.4% 34.2% 35.4% 0.86
Green Bay, WI Metro Area 33.4% 34.7% 31.9% 1.05
Greensboro-High Point, NC Metro Area 41.4% 34.0% 24.7% 1.68
Greenville, NC Metro Area 47.2% 30.2% 22.7% 2.08
Greenville, SC Metro Area 41.6% 31.2% 27.0% 1.54
Gulfport-Biloxi, MS Metro Area 42.2% 33.9% 23.8% 1.77
Hagerstown-Martinsburg, MD-WV Metro Area 33.6% 33.3% 33.0% 1.02
Hanford-Corcoran, CA Metro Area 37.5% 36.1% 26.3% 1.43
Harrisburg-Carlisle, PA Metro Area 30.4% 35.0% 34.6% 0.88
Harrisonburg, VA Metro Area 40.0% 34.8% 25.2% 1.59
Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford, CT Metro Area 27.3% 28.3% 44.4% 0.61
Hattiesburg, MS Metro Area 47.9% 32.5% 19.7% 2.43
Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton, NC Metro Area 47.6% 32.8% 19.6% 2.43
Holland-Grand Haven, MI Metro Area 28.4% 39.4% 32.2% 0.88
Honolulu, HI Metro Area 22.5% 30.1% 47.5% 0.47
Hot Springs, AR Metro Area 44.5% 30.9% 24.6% 1.81
Houma-Bayou Cane-Thibodaux, LA Metro Area 36.6% 32.7% 30.7% 1.19
Houston-Sugar Land-Baytown, TX Metro Area 31.6% 30.5% 37.9% 0.83
Huntington-Ashland, WV-KY-OH Metro Area 46.3% 31.8% 21.9% 2.11
Huntsville, AL Metro Area 31.7% 30.9% 37.3% 0.85
Idaho Falls, ID Metro Area 33.1% 38.2% 28.7% 1.15
Indianapolis, IN Metro Area 33.4% 32.5% 34.2% 0.98
Iowa City, IA Metro Area 34.4% 31.2% 34.4% 1.00
Ithaca, NY Metro Area 35.2% 32.2% 32.6% 1.08
Jackson, MI Metro Area 40.7% 35.9% 23.5% 1.73
Jackson, MS Metro Area 41.3% 31.3% 27.4% 1.51
Jackson, TN Metro Area 44.7% 29.2% 26.1% 1.71
Jacksonville, FL Metro Area 36.9% 32.8% 30.3% 1.22
Jacksonville, NC Metro Area 36.1% 42.8% 21.3% 1.69
Janesville, WI Metro Area 37.2% 36.1% 26.9% 1.38
Jefferson City, MO Metro Area 39.1% 33.9% 27.0% 1.45
Johnson City, TN Metro Area 45.0% 35.8% 19.2% 2.34
Johnstown, PA Metro Area 43.6% 34.5% 21.9% 1.99
Jonesboro, AR Metro Area 41.1% 34.5% 24.4% 1.68
Joplin, MO Metro Area 45.0% 34.6% 20.3% 2.22
Kalamazoo-Portage, MI Metro Area 41.3% 32.5% 26.2% 1.58
Kankakee-Bradley, IL Metro Area 33.8% 33.9% 32.3% 1.05
Kansas City, MO-KS Metro Area 31.4% 33.2% 35.4% 0.89
Kennewick-Richland-Pasco, WA Metro Area 30.5% 31.8% 37.6% 0.81
Killeen-Temple-Fort Hood, TX Metro Area 34.9% 36.7% 28.3% 1.23
Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol, TN-VA Metro Area 46.4% 33.2% 20.3% 2.29
Kingston, NY Metro Area 31.3% 30.5% 38.1% 0.82
Knoxville, TN Metro Area 40.2% 32.6% 27.2% 1.48
Kokomo, IN Metro Area 43.2% 32.4% 24.4% 1.77
La Crosse, WI-MN Metro Area 35.3% 34.4% 30.3% 1.17
Lafayette, IN Metro Area 39.2% 33.6% 27.1% 1.45
Lafayette, LA Metro Area 39.0% 30.1% 30.8% 1.27
Lake Charles, LA Metro Area 40.8% 32.5% 26.7% 1.53
Lakeland, FL Metro Area 41.7% 36.7% 21.6% 1.93
Lancaster, PA Metro Area 29.4% 36.6% 34.0% 0.86
Lansing-East Lansing, MI Metro Area 37.4% 33.7% 28.9% 1.29
Laredo, TX Metro Area 48.2% 31.0% 20.7% 2.33
Las Cruces, NM Metro Area 47.6% 29.9% 22.6% 2.11
Las Vegas-Paradise, NV Metro Area 34.6% 36.0% 29.5% 1.17
Lawrence, KS Metro Area 37.1% 32.6% 30.2% 1.23
Lawton, OK Metro Area 36.8% 38.2% 25.0% 1.47
Lebanon, PA Metro Area 31.8% 37.0% 31.1% 1.02
Lewiston-Auburn, ME Metro Area 40.3% 32.6% 27.2% 1.48
Lexington-Fayette, KY Metro Area 37.0% 31.4% 31.6% 1.17
Lima, OH Metro Area 42.1% 36.7% 21.2% 1.99
Lincoln, NE Metro Area 33.8% 34.2% 31.9% 1.06
Little Rock-North Little Rock, AR Metro Area 37.2% 33.4% 29.4% 1.27
Logan, UT-ID Metro Area 36.7% 38.9% 24.3% 1.51
Longview, TX Metro Area 40.4% 34.4% 25.2% 1.60
Longview, WA Metro Area 36.5% 39.0% 24.5% 1.49
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, CA Metro Area 31.5% 29.5% 38.9% 0.81
Louisville, KY-IN Metro Area 36.6% 33.5% 29.9% 1.22
Lubbock, TX Metro Area 42.5% 32.2% 25.3% 1.68
Lynchburg, VA Metro Area 39.2% 34.7% 26.3% 1.49
Macon, GA Metro Area 44.8% 31.0% 24.2% 1.85
Madera, CA Metro Area 42.2% 34.1% 23.5% 1.80
Madison, WI Metro Area 28.9% 32.8% 38.3% 0.75
Manchester-Nashua, NH Metro Area 23.9% 29.2% 46.8% 0.51
Mansfield, OH Metro Area 42.3% 36.1% 21.6% 1.96
McAllen-Edinburg-Mission, TX Metro Area 51.5% 28.8% 19.6% 2.63
Medford, OR Metro Area 37.1% 38.8% 24.2% 1.53
Memphis, TN-MS-AR Metro Area 39.8% 32.0% 28.2% 1.41
Merced, CA Metro Area 42.1% 32.3% 25.8% 1.63
Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Miami Beach, FL Metro Area 38.3% 31.4% 30.2% 1.27
Michigan City-La Porte, IN Metro Area 37.6% 36.7% 25.7% 1.46
Midland, TX Metro Area 26.3% 33.2% 40.3% 0.65
Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis, WI Metro Area 34.7% 31.3% 34.2% 1.01
Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI Metro Area 25.3% 30.8% 43.9% 0.58
Missoula, MT Metro Area 38.3% 35.5% 26.3% 1.46
Mobile, AL Metro Area 45.5% 31.9% 22.7% 2.00
Modesto, CA Metro Area 37.6% 33.8% 28.4% 1.32
Monroe, LA Metro Area 50.1% 26.7% 23.2% 2.16
Monroe, MI Metro Area 33.2% 35.0% 31.9% 1.04
Montgomery, AL Metro Area 38.5% 34.7% 26.8% 1.44
Morgantown, WV Metro Area 44.8% 30.8% 24.4% 1.84
Morristown, TN Metro Area 46.1% 35.9% 18.0% 2.56
Mount Vernon-Anacortes, WA Metro Area 31.8% 34.0% 34.2% 0.93
Muncie, IN Metro Area 47.6% 33.1% 19.3% 2.47
Muskegon-Norton Shores, MI Metro Area 43.6% 34.1% 22.3% 1.96
Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach, SC Metro Area 44.0% 34.7% 21.4% 2.06
Napa, CA Metro Area 23.3% 30.9% 45.9% 0.51
Naples-Marco Island, FL Metro Area 32.8% 30.6% 36.6% 0.90
Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro, TN Metro Area 33.5% 34.1% 32.5% 1.03
New Haven-Milford, CT Metro Area 31.5% 28.3% 40.1% 0.79
New Orleans-Metairie-Kenner, LA Metro Area 41.1% 29.7% 29.1% 1.41
New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island, NY-NJ-PA Metro Area 29.7% 26.5% 43.7% 0.68
Niles-Benton Harbor, MI Metro Area 40.8% 33.8% 25.4% 1.61
Norwich-New London, CT Metro Area 26.5% 28.9% 44.7% 0.59
Ocala, FL Metro Area 46.5% 35.3% 18.2% 2.55
Ocean City, NJ Metro Area 29.6% 34.6% 35.7% 0.83
Odessa, TX Metro Area 34.8% 32.3% 33.0% 1.05
Ogden-Clearfield, UT Metro Area 23.9% 37.6% 38.6% 0.62
Oklahoma City, OK Metro Area 36.3% 33.5% 30.1% 1.21
Olympia, WA Metro Area 27.9% 36.0% 36.0% 0.78
Omaha-Council Bluffs, NE-IA Metro Area 31.6% 33.7% 34.8% 0.91
Orlando-Kissimmee, FL Metro Area 38.1% 33.8% 28.1% 1.36
Oshkosh-Neenah, WI Metro Area 31.3% 38.3% 30.3% 1.03
Owensboro, KY Metro Area 42.0% 33.4% 24.7% 1.70
Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA Metro Area 22.7% 29.4% 47.9% 0.47
Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville, FL Metro Area 38.4% 33.5% 28.1% 1.37
Panama City-Lynn Haven, FL Metro Area 36.8% 36.8% 26.3% 1.40
Parkersburg-Marietta-Vienna, WV-OH Metro Area 41.5% 36.1% 22.5% 1.84
Pascagoula, MS Metro Area 40.3% 33.9% 25.8% 1.56
Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent, FL Metro Area 35.4% 36.2% 28.3% 1.25
Peoria, IL Metro Area 32.6% 32.6% 34.8% 0.94
Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD Metro Area 30.9% 28.7% 40.4% 0.76
Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ Metro Area 33.6% 33.5% 33.0% 1.02
Pine Bluff, AR Metro Area 48.5% 32.9% 18.6% 2.61
Pittsburgh, PA Metro Area 35.7% 32.5% 31.8% 1.12
Pittsfield, MA Metro Area 39.1% 32.6% 28.3% 1.38
Pocatello, ID Metro Area 40.4% 35.0% 24.5% 1.65
Port St. Lucie-Fort Pierce, FL Metro Area 39.2% 33.9% 26.9% 1.46
Portland-South Portland-Biddeford, ME Metro Area 31.6% 33.5% 34.9% 0.91
Portland-Vancouver-Beaverton, OR-WA Metro Area 30.1% 32.4% 37.4% 0.80
Poughkeepsie-Newburgh-Middletown, NY Metro Area 26.3% 28.3% 45.4% 0.58
Prescott, AZ Metro Area 38.4% 37.6% 23.8% 1.61
Providence-New Bedford-Fall River, RI-MA Metro Area 33.8% 30.4% 36.0% 0.94
Provo-Orem, UT Metro Area 27.2% 37.1% 35.8% 0.76
Pueblo, CO Metro Area 42.2% 35.8% 22.1% 1.91
Punta Gorda, FL Metro Area 39.4% 37.8% 22.8% 1.73
Racine, WI Metro Area 32.2% 35.2% 32.4% 0.99
Raleigh-Cary, NC Metro Area 28.0% 31.7% 40.2% 0.70
Rapid City, SD Metro Area 30.2% 38.3% 31.6% 0.96
Reading, PA Metro Area 33.5% 34.3% 32.3% 1.04
Redding, CA Metro Area 38.1% 34.1% 27.9% 1.37
Reno-Sparks, NV Metro Area 37.0% 32.6% 30.4% 1.22
Richmond, VA Metro Area 29.6% 33.6% 36.8% 0.80
Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA Metro Area 34.0% 32.5% 33.5% 1.01
Roanoke, VA Metro Area 38.5% 34.3% 27.3% 1.41
Rochester, MN Metro Area 24.7% 34.1% 41.3% 0.60
Rochester, NY Metro Area 35.2% 32.9% 32.0% 1.10
Rockford, IL Metro Area 34.3% 35.1% 30.5% 1.12
Rocky Mount, NC Metro Area 46.9% 33.7% 19.5% 2.41
Rome, GA Metro Area 46.5% 31.4% 22.0% 2.11
Sacramento--Arden-Arcade--Roseville, CA Metro Area 31.5% 30.9% 37.4% 0.84
Saginaw-Saginaw Township North, MI Metro Area 43.0% 34.1% 22.8% 1.89
Salem, OR Metro Area 38.2% 35.9% 25.9% 1.47
Salinas, CA Metro Area 29.2% 33.9% 37.0% 0.79
Salisbury, MD Metro Area 38.9% 32.1% 28.9% 1.35
Salt Lake City, UT Metro Area 27.9% 34.5% 37.7% 0.74
San Angelo, TX Metro Area 39.1% 33.3% 27.7% 1.41
San Antonio, TX Metro Area 34.0% 33.5% 32.6% 1.04
San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos, CA Metro Area 29.7% 29.7% 40.5% 0.73
San Francisco-Oakland-Fremont, CA Metro Area 24.6% 25.5% 49.8% 0.49
San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA Metro Area 20.1% 22.5% 57.3% 0.35
San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles, CA Metro Area 27.4% 31.6% 41.1% 0.67
Sandusky, OH Metro Area 38.2% 32.1% 29.8% 1.28
Santa Barbara-Santa Maria, CA Metro Area 29.4% 29.7% 40.9% 0.72
Santa Cruz-Watsonville, CA Metro Area 25.3% 29.3% 45.4% 0.56
Santa Fe, NM Metro Area 34.7% 32.7% 32.5% 1.07
Santa Rosa-Petaluma, CA Metro Area 28.0% 31.3% 40.6% 0.69
Sarasota-Bradenton-Venice, FL Metro Area 37.7% 33.2% 29.0% 1.30
Savannah, GA Metro Area 37.5% 34.1% 28.4% 1.32
Scranton--Wilkes-Barre, PA Metro Area 42.0% 31.9% 26.0% 1.62
Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, WA Metro Area 25.2% 30.8% 43.9% 0.57
Sheboygan, WI Metro Area 32.4% 38.0% 29.6% 1.09
Sherman-Denison, TX Metro Area 38.0% 33.4% 28.6% 1.33
Shreveport-Bossier City, LA Metro Area 40.3% 31.4% 28.5% 1.41
Sioux City, IA-NE-SD Metro Area 38.9% 35.0% 26.2% 1.48
Sioux Falls, SD Metro Area 29.9% 38.0% 32.0% 0.93
South Bend-Mishawaka, IN-MI Metro Area 39.6% 35.7% 24.8% 1.60
Spartanburg, SC Metro Area 43.0% 33.9% 23.0% 1.87
Spokane, WA Metro Area 37.4% 33.8% 28.7% 1.30
Springfield, IL Metro Area 32.0% 33.0% 35.0% 0.91
Springfield, MA Metro Area 35.7% 30.7% 33.5% 1.07
Springfield, MO Metro Area 41.4% 36.6% 22.2% 1.86
Springfield, OH Metro Area 44.7% 34.0% 21.3% 2.10
St. Cloud, MN Metro Area 32.8% 32.5% 34.6% 0.95
St. George, UT Metro Area 38.0% 37.8% 24.1% 1.58
St. Joseph, MO-KS Metro Area 41.0% 35.0% 23.9% 1.72
St. Louis, MO-IL Metro Area 34.1% 31.9% 33.9% 1.01
State College, PA Metro Area 38.3% 29.2% 32.6% 1.17
Stockton, CA Metro Area 35.6% 31.4% 33.1% 1.08
Sumter, SC Metro Area 41.9% 35.9% 22.1% 1.90
Syracuse, NY Metro Area 34.6% 33.9% 31.4% 1.10
Tallahassee, FL Metro Area 41.1% 31.1% 27.9% 1.47
Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL Metro Area 39.5% 33.2% 27.3% 1.45
Terre Haute, IN Metro Area 44.5% 33.2% 22.4% 1.99
Texarkana, TX-Texarkana, AR Metro Area 45.7% 32.9% 21.4% 2.14
Toledo, OH Metro Area 41.5% 31.6% 26.9% 1.54
Topeka, KS Metro Area 35.1% 37.0% 27.9% 1.26
Trenton-Ewing, NJ Metro Area 26.9% 26.9% 46.2% 0.58
Tucson, AZ Metro Area 39.9% 32.5% 27.6% 1.45
Tulsa, OK Metro Area 36.8% 34.6% 28.5% 1.29
Tuscaloosa, AL Metro Area 45.6% 29.7% 24.6% 1.85
Tyler, TX Metro Area 39.0% 32.4% 28.5% 1.37
Utica-Rome, NY Metro Area 38.8% 34.9% 26.4% 1.47
Valdosta, GA Metro Area 47.5% 31.3% 21.2% 2.24
Vallejo-Fairfield, CA Metro Area 27.4% 31.3% 41.3% 0.66
Victoria, TX Metro Area 34.9% 35.1% 29.9% 1.17
Vineland-Millville-Bridgeton, NJ Metro Area 38.5% 31.1% 30.4% 1.27
Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC Metro Area 30.0% 34.1% 36.1% 0.83
Visalia-Porterville, CA Metro Area 44.4% 32.3% 23.3% 1.91
Waco, TX Metro Area 44.8% 29.9% 25.4% 1.76
Warner Robins, GA Metro Area 31.2% 34.1% 34.7% 0.90
Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metro Area 17.0% 25.4% 57.5% 0.30
Waterloo-Cedar Falls, IA Metro Area 33.2% 38.7% 28.0% 1.19
Wausau, WI Metro Area 30.8% 38.5% 30.6% 1.01
Weirton-Steubenville, WV-OH Metro Area 44.8% 33.8% 21.7% 2.06
Wenatchee, WA Metro Area 34.0% 37.8% 28.2% 1.21
Wheeling, WV-OH Metro Area 42.6% 35.9% 21.5% 1.98
Wichita, KS Metro Area 35.3% 35.7% 29.1% 1.21
Wichita Falls, TX Metro Area 37.6% 34.7% 27.7% 1.36
Williamsport, PA Metro Area 38.3% 34.6% 27.0% 1.42
Wilmington, NC Metro Area 35.0% 34.9% 30.1% 1.16
Winchester, VA-WV Metro Area 36.7% 28.3% 35.0% 1.05
Winston-Salem, NC Metro Area 42.8% 30.9% 26.2% 1.63
Worcester, MA Metro Area 29.2% 28.6% 42.1% 0.69
Yakima, WA Metro Area 39.0% 35.3% 25.8% 1.51
York-Hanover, PA Metro Area 29.5% 35.5% 35.1% 0.84
Youngstown-Warren-Boardman, OH-PA Metro Area 43.2% 34.8% 21.9% 1.97
Yuba City, CA Metro Area 37.3% 34.3% 28.4% 1.31
Yuma, AZ Metro Area 43.7% 37.4% 18.9% 2.31

Source: IHS Global Insight, U.S. Conference of Mayors
Mike Maciag is Data Editor for GOVERNING.
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