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Vehicle Ownership in U.S. Cities Data and Map

Statistics on car-free households and numbers of vehicles per household for cities.

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Some cities and areas of the country are much more auto-dependent than others.

One way to assess a city's reliance on cars is to compare shares of households without access to vehicles. An estimated 8.7 percent of U.S. households were without vehicles in 2016. Car-free households are generally much more common in densely-populated urban areas and high poverty neighborhoods where residents can't afford vehicle ownership. Research also suggests younger families and one-person households are more likely to not own a car.

Another useful measure of vehicle ownership for cities is the number of vehicles per household. According to Census survey estimates, there were about 1.8 vehicles available per U.S. household in 2016.

Both vehicle statistics are shown below for jurisdictions with populations exceeding 100,000:
Jurisdiction2015 Households Without Vehicles2016 Households Without Vehicles2015 Vehicles Per Household2016 Vehicles Per Household
New York, New York54.5%54.4%0.630.63
Newark, New Jersey39.2%40.3%0.860.89
Jersey City, New Jersey40.1%37.1%0.810.85
Washington, District of Columbia36.2%37.3%0.890.86
Boston, Massachusetts35.4%33.8%0.940.94
Cambridge, Massachusetts30.9%36.8%0.900.86
Paterson, New Jersey33.6%33.0%1.051.00
Hartford, Connecticut30.3%32.6%1.000.99
San Francisco, California31.2%29.9%1.071.10
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania31.1%29.5%1.031.05
New Haven, Connecticut30.4%29.2%1.011.10
Baltimore, Maryland30.7%28.9%1.081.08
Buffalo, New York30.0%28.2%1.031.08
Syracuse, New York26.4%29.2%1.091.08
Elizabeth, New Jersey28.3%25.8%1.081.17
Chicago, Illinois26.5%27.5%1.111.12
Rochester, New York26.8%26.5%1.101.14
Detroit, Michigan25.3%24.7%1.131.15
Yonkers, New York24.6%23.5%1.261.25
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania23.9%23.4%1.181.16
Cleveland, Ohio23.5%23.7%1.151.19
Springfield, Massachusetts20.8%22.2%1.311.26
Berkeley, California19.8%23.1%1.291.23
Bridgeport, Connecticut22.1%20.1%1.371.42
Dayton, Ohio22.2%19.0%1.321.39
Waterbury, Connecticut20.4%20.6%1.361.32
Cincinnati, Ohio19.3%21.2%1.271.30
Providence, Rhode Island21.7%18.0%1.211.27
Worcester, Massachusetts19.6%19.3%1.301.30
New Orleans, Louisiana18.8%20.2%1.281.26
Miami, Florida19.9%18.6%1.191.24
St. Louis, Missouri19.7%18.5%1.251.27
Milwaukee, Wisconsin17.9%18.7%1.301.34
Allentown, Pennsylvania19.2%16.9%1.311.33
Minneapolis, Minnesota18.2%17.1%1.331.35
Lowell, Massachusetts17.6%16.9%1.351.52
Richmond, Virginia16.4%18.0%1.391.42
Oakland, California17.3%16.7%1.441.45
Honolulu, Hawaii16.6%17.2%1.401.40
Seattle, Washington16.6%17.1%1.401.39
Peoria, Illinois16.5%15.4%1.441.45
Atlanta, Georgia15.2%16.4%1.311.28
Paradise, Nevada15.2%15.4%1.411.50
Portland, Oregon14.7%13.7%1.491.49
Birmingham, Alabama15.8%12.3%1.411.48
Toledo, Ohio14.7%13.3%1.451.43
Savannah, Georgia13.9%13.7%1.451.43
Akron, Ohio14.5%12.9%1.421.46
St. Paul, Minnesota13.3%13.5%1.521.52
Macon-Bibb County, Georgia13.2%13.3%1.551.60
Arlington, Virginia13.4%12.7%1.381.40
Tucson, Arizona14.4%11.7%1.491.54
South Bend, Indiana12.5%13.6%1.441.43
Lansing, Michigan12.6%13.4%1.411.45
Norfolk, Virginia10.6%15.0%1.581.54
Rockford, Illinois11.9%13.4%1.541.46
East Los Angeles, California13.0%12.0%1.601.75
Everett, Washington13.2%11.6%1.641.65
Hialeah, Florida12.6%12.2%1.531.58
Shreveport, Louisiana11.0%13.6%1.531.50
Grand Rapids, Michigan12.5%12.0%1.511.56
Los Angeles, California12.1%12.2%1.591.62
Memphis, Tennessee11.8%12.5%1.491.47
Ann Arbor, Michigan12.4%11.5%1.451.44
Eugene, Oregon12.3%11.6%1.541.64
Fresno, California11.4%12.4%1.641.63
North Charleston, South Carolina12.7%10.7%1.521.46
Columbia, South Carolina12.9%10.4%1.471.55
Evansville, Indiana11.7%11.5%1.541.48
Glendale, California11.7%11.4%1.651.67
Sunrise Manor, Nevada11.0%11.8%1.601.66
Kansas City, Missouri11.4%11.3%1.551.58
San Bernardino, California11.7%11.1%1.711.80
Louisville/Jefferson County, Kentucky11.7%10.9%1.601.61
Springfield, Illinois11.9%10.6%1.521.52
Madison, Wisconsin11.2%11.2%1.511.50
Chattanooga, Tennessee11.8%10.6%1.531.54
Topeka, Kansas9.7%12.4%1.571.52
Gainesville, Florida10.4%11.4%1.481.44
Baton Rouge, Louisiana10.4%11.4%1.541.55
Manchester, New Hampshire8.1%13.5%1.601.56
Tampa, Florida11.4%10.1%1.481.49
Clearwater, Florida10.6%10.9%1.491.45
Stockton, California10.5%10.8%1.801.83
Salt Lake City, Utah10.6%10.6%1.601.62
Winston-Salem, North Carolina11.3%9.9%1.631.68
Pasadena, California9.7%11.4%1.621.54
Hollywood, Florida11.4%9.7%1.521.53
Columbus, Georgia12.4%8.6%1.521.68
Knoxville, Tennessee9.7%11.3%1.571.59
Reno, Nevada10.0%10.8%1.641.73
Las Vegas, Nevada10.2%10.5%1.621.63
Tempe, Arizona11.1%9.4%1.571.65
Long Beach, California10.4%10.1%1.641.69
Spokane, Washington10.9%9.4%1.681.66
Athens-Clarke County, Georgia11.2%9.0%1.521.67
Alexandria, Virginia10.1%10.0%1.381.34
Pueblo, Colorado12.0%8.1%1.631.67
Stamford, Connecticut11.0%8.9%1.671.63
Richmond, California11.7%8.1%1.681.89
Inglewood, California9.8%9.8%1.631.69
Montgomery, Alabama8.5%11.0%1.681.62
Dallas, Texas10.2%9.1%1.561.59
Indianapolis, Indiana10.5%8.7%1.541.63
Columbus, Ohio9.8%9.4%1.541.55
El Monte, California10.2%8.9%1.832.05
West Palm Beach, Florida8.6%10.4%1.461.43
El Cajon, California10.4%8.6%1.671.73
Denver, Colorado9.6%9.4%1.581.62
Tacoma, Washington9.7%9.3%1.711.70
Springfield, Missouri9.7%9.3%1.561.56
St. Petersburg, Florida9.6%9.3%1.491.52
Kansas City, Kansas10.1%8.6%1.781.72
Lafayette, Louisiana10.6%8.0%1.601.60
Wilmington, North Carolina10.1%8.5%1.631.56
Sacramento, California10.0%8.6%1.611.65
Jackson, Mississippi11.0%7.6%1.601.68
Durham, North Carolina9.8%8.7%1.561.63
Arden-Arcade, California8.8%9.6%1.531.58
Augusta-Richmond County, Georgia9.3%9.1%1.681.69
Gresham, Oregon9.8%8.5%1.681.87
Des Moines, Iowa8.5%9.6%1.701.71
Tulsa, Oklahoma9.3%8.8%1.631.62
Mobile, Alabama9.7%8.3%1.601.65
Newport News, Virginia9.5%8.4%1.631.69
High Point, North Carolina8.7%9.1%1.651.66
Waco, Texas8.7%8.8%1.621.67
Orlando, Florida9.4%8.2%1.451.50
Phoenix, Arizona9.1%8.4%1.661.71
Omaha, Nebraska8.2%9.2%1.681.66
Glendale, Arizona8.4%9.0%1.661.72
Lancaster, California9.6%7.7%1.781.77
Brownsville, Texas7.6%9.6%1.731.73
Little Rock, Arkansas8.2%8.9%1.591.58
Green Bay, Wisconsin8.6%8.5%1.611.66
Fort Lauderdale, Florida8.8%8.2%1.451.49
Jacksonville, Florida8.3%8.7%1.621.62
Davenport, Iowa9.5%7.4%1.701.66
Rochester, Minnesota7.8%8.9%1.681.68
San Antonio, Texas8.4%8.3%1.681.71
Vallejo, California9.0%7.6%1.942.01
Beaumont, Texas8.8%7.7%1.571.62
Corpus Christi, Texas8.5%7.9%1.751.77
Houston, Texas8.3%8.1%1.581.59
Burbank, California7.6%8.7%1.651.71
Fayetteville, North Carolina8.9%7.0%1.651.64
El Paso, Texas7.4%8.4%1.791.82
Fargo, North Dakota7.0%8.8%1.661.67
Kent, Washington7.0%8.7%1.981.85
Wichita Falls, Texas8.7%6.8%1.751.63
Charleston, South Carolina8.2%7.2%1.641.55
Albuquerque, New Mexico8.5%6.9%1.691.75
Tallahassee, Florida8.4%6.9%1.541.65
Boulder, Colorado8.1%7.3%1.631.72
Modesto, California8.1%7.2%1.821.86
Pompano Beach, Florida7.8%7.5%1.491.44
Salem, Oregon8.3%7.0%1.701.71
Warren, Michigan7.8%7.2%1.651.73
Daly City, California6.4%8.6%1.961.95
Lexington, Kentucky7.2%7.4%1.641.70
Columbia, Missouri9.0%5.5%1.661.68
Sandy Springs, Georgia6.9%7.6%1.571.57
Hampton, Virginia6.7%7.8%1.751.69
McAllen, Texas6.9%7.6%1.721.72
Wichita, Kansas7.7%6.7%1.731.80
San Angelo, Texas8.2%6.1%1.641.66
Las Cruces, New Mexico6.1%8.2%1.751.73
Mesa, Arizona7.4%6.8%1.671.78
Fort Wayne, Indiana8.0%6.0%1.651.69
Concord, California6.9%7.0%1.941.86
Nashville-Davidson, Tennessee7.9%5.9%1.661.72
Joliet, Illinois7.2%6.6%1.831.91
Cedar Rapids, Iowa7.8%5.9%1.721.75
Aurora, Colorado7.4%6.3%1.821.85
Palmdale, California8.1%5.6%1.952.02
Escondido, California8.0%5.7%1.881.95
Columbia, Maryland8.6%5.0%1.721.81
Hillsboro, Oregon7.6%5.9%1.701.86
Metairie, Louisiana6.3%7.2%1.601.60
Greensboro, North Carolina6.1%7.3%1.641.61
Abilene, Texas5.4%8.0%1.711.69
Charlotte, North Carolina7.4%6.0%1.651.71
Independence, Missouri7.5%5.8%1.701.70
San Buenaventura, California7.2%6.1%1.851.91
Victorville, California6.5%6.6%1.921.95
Tyler, Texas6.7%6.4%1.611.63
Vancouver, Washington5.5%7.6%1.721.75
Santa Ana, California7.3%5.7%2.212.25
San Diego, California6.6%6.3%1.761.80
Anchorage, Alaska6.8%6.1%1.841.95
Huntsville, Alabama6.6%6.3%1.681.70
Lubbock, Texas7.3%5.6%1.671.74
Austin, Texas6.9%6.0%1.651.65
Visalia, California6.9%5.9%1.751.84
North Las Vegas, Nevada7.0%5.6%1.841.89
Killeen, Texas6.3%6.2%1.721.79
Lakeland, Florida7.0%5.6%1.531.54
Laredo, Texas6.5%5.9%1.871.85
Bellevue, Washington5.5%6.9%1.741.81
Fairfield, California4.8%7.4%2.032.01
Sioux Falls, South Dakota6.6%5.6%1.791.82
Lincoln, Nebraska6.3%5.8%1.741.78
Lakewood, Colorado5.5%6.5%1.851.84
Salinas, California6.0%5.8%1.962.09
Pomona, California6.5%5.3%2.072.27
Miami Gardens, Florida6.5%5.3%1.751.71
Santa Clara, California6.0%5.8%1.871.81
Hayward, California6.0%5.7%2.082.12
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma6.0%5.7%1.781.82
Santa Maria, California6.2%5.5%2.001.98
Bakersfield, California5.5%6.1%1.931.92
Pasadena, Texas5.8%5.7%1.781.88
Billings, Montana4.9%6.7%2.051.91
Renton, Washington5.5%6.0%1.781.87
Greeley, Colorado5.7%5.8%1.921.92
Santa Rosa, California5.3%6.2%1.861.88
Raleigh, North Carolina5.3%6.0%1.691.74
Spring Valley, Nevada6.1%5.2%1.641.62
Norman, Oklahoma7.0%4.3%1.831.87
Fullerton, California5.6%5.5%1.962.02
College Station, Texas4.7%6.3%1.781.86
Rialto, California6.5%4.5%2.222.22
Fort Worth, Texas6.1%4.8%1.801.83
Anaheim, California5.7%5.2%2.012.05
Riverside, California5.4%5.3%2.052.04
Torrance, California5.4%5.2%1.911.95
San Jose, California5.5%5.1%2.072.12
Sunnyvale, California5.6%4.9%1.831.78
Westminster, Colorado5.9%4.6%1.961.91
Pembroke Pines, Florida6.0%4.3%1.831.83
Colorado Springs, Colorado5.8%4.5%1.801.85
Roseville, California6.1%4.2%1.871.95
San Mateo, California5.2%5.1%1.841.87
Brandon, Florida3.7%6.6%1.751.69
Amarillo, Texas6.1%4.2%1.731.81
Norwalk, California4.6%5.5%2.212.27
Peoria, Arizona5.6%4.5%1.851.91
Garden Grove, California5.3%4.6%2.232.19
Elgin, Illinois4.8%5.1%1.851.95
Chula Vista, California4.9%4.9%1.992.01
Jurupa Valley, California4.8%4.9%2.392.32
Fremont, California4.5%5.2%2.102.12
Davie, Florida6.5%3.2%1.811.90
Odessa, Texas4.4%5.2%1.831.78
Clovis, California5.5%4.0%1.921.98
Midland, Texas5.7%3.7%2.051.93
Irving, Texas4.5%4.9%1.721.75
Sterling Heights, Michigan5.1%4.2%1.851.89
Boise City, Idaho4.7%4.6%1.811.70
West Valley City, Utah5.0%4.3%2.162.10
West Covina, California4.1%5.2%2.302.22
Coral Springs, Florida4.1%5.1%1.881.81
Fort Collins, Colorado4.4%4.8%1.891.86
Palm Bay, Florida6.2%3.0%1.601.75
Oceanside, California5.6%3.6%1.891.92
Irvine, California5.0%4.0%1.771.83
Antioch, California5.7%3.3%2.142.24
Costa Mesa, California6.0%3.0%1.792.00
Chesapeake, Virginia4.5%4.4%2.021.99
Garland, Texas4.6%4.4%1.992.04
Oxnard, California4.3%4.6%2.202.10
Scottsdale, Arizona4.4%4.5%1.671.70
Orange, California3.7%5.0%2.122.16
Spring Hill, Florida3.9%4.7%1.651.75
Ontario, California4.6%3.9%2.042.15
Chandler, Arizona4.2%4.2%1.821.85
Mesquite, Texas4.7%3.7%1.921.96
Arlington, Texas4.7%3.7%1.851.89
Provo, Utah3.9%4.5%2.112.17
Lewisville, Texas4.1%4.3%1.761.78
Virginia Beach, Virginia4.9%3.4%1.931.98
Denton, Texas4.9%3.1%1.781.80
Moreno Valley, California5.0%2.9%2.222.32
Aurora, Illinois4.0%3.8%1.981.94
Henderson, Nevada2.8%5.0%1.791.74
Naperville, Illinois3.3%4.4%1.891.91
Lehigh Acres, Florida3.5%4.2%1.851.81
Santa Clarita, California4.0%3.7%2.062.15
Murfreesboro, Tennessee3.8%3.8%1.821.96
The Woodlands, Texas3.3%4.1%1.971.90
Richardson, Texas3.7%3.7%1.911.84
Arvada, Colorado3.7%3.6%2.042.07
Olathe, Kansas4.6%2.7%2.012.01
Grand Prairie, Texas3.8%3.3%2.032.03
Clarksville, Tennessee4.7%2.4%1.781.84
Overland Park, Kansas3.9%3.2%1.851.85
Enterprise, Nevada2.2%4.3%1.871.85
Thousand Oaks, California3.3%3.2%2.072.09
Thornton, Colorado3.5%3.0%2.102.14
Vista, California3.1%3.3%2.152.14
Simi Valley, California2.3%4.1%2.262.29
Broken Arrow, Oklahoma3.2%3.0%2.032.00
McKinney, Texas3.8%2.4%1.891.95
Corona, California3.5%2.6%2.172.29
Port St. Lucie, Florida3.6%2.6%1.761.79
Cape Coral, Florida3.0%3.0%1.721.78
Fontana, California3.1%2.7%2.372.27
Downey, California3.7%2.1%2.112.19
Rancho Cucamonga, California2.7%3.0%2.152.12
Round Rock, Texas2.8%2.7%1.931.99
Carlsbad, California2.2%3.0%1.992.01
Elk Grove, California3.4%1.8%2.162.21
Plano, Texas2.8%2.4%1.901.93
Huntington Beach, California2.6%2.2%1.981.99
Miramar, Florida2.5%2.3%1.972.00
Carrollton, Texas2.2%2.5%1.911.91
Centennial, Colorado2.6%1.7%2.102.15
Murrieta, California3.5%0.7%2.122.36
Highlands Ranch, Colorado2.7%1.5%2.072.04
Cary, North Carolina2.4%1.4%1.941.89
Pearland, Texas2.4%1.4%1.992.18
Surprise, Arizona2.4%1.3%1.871.87
League City, Texas2.6%1.0%2.042.15
Gilbert, Arizona1.9%1.7%2.042.08
West Jordan, Utah1.9%1.3%2.142.30
Frisco, Texas1.1%2.0%2.052.00
Temecula, California1.0%2.0%2.242.25
Source: Governing calculations of 2015 and 2016 one-year Census American Community Survey estimates. Note that one-year estimates have high margins of error for smaller cities.

Cars Per Household for U.S. Cities Map

The following map shows numbers of vehicles per household, calculated using two-year averages from 2015 and 2016 Census survey estimates. Data is shown for the 200 most populated cities, with cities having more vehicles shaded dark orange.

Click a city to display its measures. Zoom in to view cities clustered together, or pan the map for Alaska and Hawaii.

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Data Reports
Mike Maciag is Data Editor for GOVERNING.
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