For every 10,000 District of Columbia residents, there are about 61 Metropolitan Police Department officers. A similar number of officers serve nearby Baltimore given the city’s size. But in many other larger jurisdictions, police departments employ fewer than half as many officers per capita.

Police presence varies greatly across U.S. cities, driven by call volumes, municipal budgets and a range of other factors.

A review of the latest police employment data reported to the FBI in 2012 shows police agencies serving jurisdictions with populations exceeding 50,000 employed an average of 17 officers per 10,000 residents. Totals for each city are listed in the table below.

Washington’s Metropolitan Police Department reports that it employs 3,982 sworn officers and another 430 full-time civilians to police the city of about 630,000. After the District, cities with the highest per capita rates in 2012 were Baltimore (47 per 10,000 residents), Chicago (44 per 10,000 residents) and Wilmington, Del. (43 per 10,000 residents).

Many cities near the top of the list in terms of police presence tend to be areas with higher crime rates.

“It’s a lot easier for a chief to go to a budget meeting and ask for more officers if there’s a huge crime problem,” said Meg Hollis, a Michigan State University assistant professor who researches police staffing.

In general, suburban jurisdictions and mid-size cities employ fewer officers per capita. If they border a major city, though, staffing levels might be a bit higher, Hollis said.

While crime rates do matter, they're far from the only factor dictating the size of a city's police force. For one, jurisdictions might lack a budget to fund a larger department. Some cities require more patrols or other varying needs. There's also the geographic size of the jurisdiction, as more officers could be needed to cover larger areas.

Certain types of cities are also often home to significantly greater numbers of law enforcement personnel. Take college towns, for example, which have campus police departments, often with powers of arrest and their own detective units. These other types of law enforcement agencies are difficult to tally, so they’re not reflected in cities' per capita rates.

When setting employment levels, some jurisdictions base staffing decisions primarily on how they compare to peer cities. Hollis said such simple comparisons can be problematic as much more should be factored into the equation. 

Instead, police agencies can examine call volume and the geographic distribution of requests over time. Knowing how many officers are needed to address key problems specific to a community is also helpful, Hollis said.

“There’s a balance between what government expects you to do,” Hollis said, “and what the citizens need you to do and are asking for.”

The U.S. Department of Justice published a guide outlining an approach to setting police staffing levels based on workload and performance objectives.

But at the end of the day, how much more effective are larger police forces in reducing crime?

Research is mixed. One study reported a negative correlation between police staffing and crime rates, finding increasing crime rates when jurisdictions cut staffing. For the most part, research suggests that the effect of hiring additional officers plateaus once staffing reaches a certain point.

Local Police Employment Data

This table lists 2012 police employment data for all agencies serving at least 50,000 residents that reported data to the FBI.

City Total Law Enforcement Total Officers Civilian Employees Officers per 10K residents Total per 10K residents
Washington, DC 4,332 3,867 465 61.2 68.5
Baltimore, MD 3,342 2,962 380 47.4 53.4
Chicago, IL 12,766 11,944 822 44.1 47.1
Wilmington, DE 368 307 61 42.6 51.0
Philadelphia, PA 7,360 6,526 834 42.4 47.8
New York, NY 49,283 34,555 14,728 41.7 59.5
St. Louis, MO 1,866 1,322 544 41.5 58.6
Miami Beach, FL 500 372 128 40.8 54.9
Atlanta, GA 2,165 1,775 390 40.6 49.5
Birmingham, AL 1,120 865 255 40.6 52.5
Hartford, CT 516 478 38 38.2 41.2
Newark, NJ 1,322 1,062 260 38.1 47.4
Cleveland, OH 1,709 1,481 228 37.6 43.4
Memphis, TN 2,826 2,416 410 36.7 43.0
Detroit, MI 2,883 2,570 313 36.3 40.8
Daytona Beach, FL 259 219 40 35.4 41.9
New Orleans, LA 1,513 1,271 242 35.0 41.7
Rochester, NY 879 741 138 35.0 41.5
Richmond, VA 940 719 221 34.6 45.2
Camden, NJ 315 268 47 34.5 40.6
East Orange, NJ 287 221 66 34.2 44.4
Boston, MA 2,700 2,130 570 33.8 42.8
Jackson, TN 264 221 43 33.6 40.2
Cincinnati, OH 1,113 991 122 33.5 37.6
White Plains, NY 203 192 11 33.4 35.3
Sarasota, FL 214 174 40 32.8 40.3
Charleston, SC 523 402 121 32.5 42.2
Syracuse, NY 534 468 66 32.1 36.6
Milwaukee, WI 2,577 1,906 671 31.8 43.0
Jersey City, NJ 940 798 142 31.7 37.4
Charleston, WV 185 161 24 31.5 36.1
North Charleston, SC 395 316 79 31.4 39.2
New Haven, CT 461 407 54 31.3 35.5
Tuscaloosa, AL 366 285 81 31.0 39.8
Yonkers, NY 677 608 69 30.6 34.1
Mount Vernon, NY 240 207 33 30.4 35.2
Macon, GA 357 279 78 30.1 38.5
Norfolk, VA 825 733 92 29.9 33.6
North Little Rock, AR 224 188 36 29.8 35.5
Greenville, SC 223 181 42 29.7 36.6
Bayonne, NJ 244 190 54 29.7 38.1
Columbia, SC 450 389 61 29.5 34.1
Fort Lauderdale, FL 668 501 167 29.3 39.1
Orlando, FL 931 721 210 29.2 37.8
Gary, IN 284 235 49 29.2 35.3
Buffalo, NY 923 759 164 28.9 35.2
Pensacola, FL 201 153 48 28.9 38.0
Plainfield, NJ 165 145 20 28.8 32.8
Baton Rouge, LA 841 664 177 28.7 36.3
Kalamazoo, MI 256 213 43 28.5 34.2
Pittsburgh, PA 947 886 61 28.4 30.3
Bridgeport, CT 454 414 40 28.4 31.1
Ocala, FL 233 161 72 28.1 40.7
Trenton, NJ 314 238 76 27.9 36.8
Kansas City, MO 1,869 1,273 596 27.4 40.3
Chattanooga, TN 549 470 79 27.4 32.0
Tampa, FL 1,225 959 266 27.3 34.9
Irvington, NJ 176 148 28 27.3 32.4
Shreveport, LA 661 548 113 27.1 32.7
Fort Myers, FL 236 173 63 26.9 36.7
Jackson, MS 746 468 278 26.6 42.4
Little Rock, AR 636 520 116 26.5 32.4
San Francisco, CA 2,599 2,173 426 26.5 31.7
New Bedford, MA 296 253 43 26.3 30.8
Rocky Mount, NC 188 152 36 26.2 32.4
Roanoke, VA 301 256 45 26.2 30.8
Portsmouth, VA 341 252 89 26.0 35.2
Gulfport, MS 240 180 60 25.9 34.6
Los Angeles, CA 12,956 9,992 2,964 25.9 33.6
Elizabeth, NJ 423 326 97 25.8 33.5
Cambridge, MA 308 276 32 25.8 28.8
West Palm Beach, FL 357 264 93 25.8 34.9
Hammond, IN 249 207 42 25.6 30.7
Miami, FL 1,380 1,054 326 25.4 33.3
Savannah-Chatham Metropolitan, GA 814 588 226 25.4 35.2
Waterbury, CT 333 280 53 25.3 30.1
Montgomery, AL 712 529 183 25.3 34.1
Utica, NY 173 158 15 25.3 27.7
Paterson, NJ 453 371 82 25.2 30.8
Hoboken, NJ 148 128 20 25.2 29.1
New Brunswick, NJ 174 140 34 25.1 31.2
Racine, WI 230 198 32 25.0 29.1
Troy, NY 138 125 13 24.8 27.4
South Bend, IN 321 251 70 24.8 31.7
Bossier City, LA 198 155 43 24.6 31.4
Houston, TX 6,663 5,318 1,345 24.4 30.6
Lake Charles, LA 180 178 2 24.4 24.7
Asheville, NC 246 208 38 24.4 28.8
Fall River, MA 263 218 45 24.3 29.3
Evansville, IN 317 286 31 24.2 26.8
Dayton, OH 415 342 73 24.1 29.2
Valdosta, GA 175 136 39 24.0 30.9
Delray Beach, FL 212 149 63 24.0 34.2
Providence, RI 517 427 90 24.0 29.1
Kenner, LA 236 161 75 24.0 35.2
Kansas City, KS 433 353 80 24.0 29.4
Burlington, NC 167 123 44 23.9 32.5
Gastonia, NC 201 174 27 23.9 27.6
Springfield, MA 413 368 45 23.8 26.7
Columbus, GA 568 467 101 23.8 29.0
Lancaster, PA 163 143 20 23.8 27.1
East Hartford, CT 157 122 35 23.7 30.5
Decatur, AL 156 133 23 23.7 27.8
Vineland, NJ 172 145 27 23.7 28.1
Greenwich, CT 172 146 26 23.6 27.8
Bradenton, FL 146 119 27 23.4 28.7
Dothan, AL 223 155 68 23.4 33.6
Portland, ME 218 155 63 23.3 32.8
Winston-Salem, NC 705 547 158 23.3 30.0
Lower Merion Township, PA 153 135 18 23.2 26.3
Waltham, MA 170 143 27 23.2 27.5
Lynchburg, VA 206 179 27 23.1 26.6
Wilmington, NC 304 253 51 23.1 27.8
Gainesville, FL 352 293 59 23.1 27.7
Union Township, NJ 184 132 52 23.1 32.1
Newport News, VA 554 418 136 23.0 30.5
Santa Fe, NM 201 158 43 23.0 29.2
Chicopee, MA 132 128 4 22.9 23.6
Boynton Beach, FL 216 160 56 22.9 30.9
Columbus, OH 2,138 1,823 315 22.9 26.8
Durham, NC 665 537 128 22.8 28.2
Johnson City, TN 173 146 27 22.7 26.9
Youngstown, OH 196 151 45 22.7 29.4
Union City, NJ 216 153 63 22.7 32.0
Worcester, MA 462 415 47 22.6 25.2
Topeka, KS 353 290 63 22.5 27.4
Knoxville, TN 509 410 99 22.5 27.9
Greensboro, NC 757 621 136 22.5 27.4
Port Arthur, TX 161 123 38 22.5 29.4
Marietta, GA 164 130 34 22.4 28.3
West Haven, CT 133 124 9 22.3 23.9
Albany, GA 207 175 32 22.3 26.4
Santa Monica, CA 385 203 182 22.3 42.2
Denver, CO 1,630 1,388 242 22.1 25.9
Salt Lake City, UT 583 425 158 22.1 30.3
West Allis, WI 160 134 26 22.0 26.3
Hempstead Village, NY 148 119 29 21.9 27.2
Minneapolis, MN 983 852 131 21.8 25.2
Huntsville, AL 522 401 121 21.8 28.4
Brookline, MA 183 130 53 21.8 30.7
Evanston, IL 223 163 60 21.8 29.8
St. Petersburg, FL 745 541 204 21.8 30.0
Boca Raton, FL 288 188 100 21.7 33.3
Alexandria, VA 412 317 95 21.7 28.2
Lakeland, FL 420 217 203 21.7 42.0
Stamford, CT 324 269 55 21.7 26.1
Jonesboro, AR 160 149 11 21.7 23.3
Perth Amboy, NJ 141 111 30 21.6 27.5
Mobile, AL 700 543 157 21.6 27.8
Schenectady, NY 188 143 45 21.5 28.2
Suffolk, VA 241 184 57 21.4 28.1
Joplin, MO 151 108 43 21.3 29.8
Oak Park, IL 138 111 27 21.3 26.5
Terre Haute, IN 140 130 10 21.3 22.9
Springfield, IL 287 249 38 21.3 24.5
Wayne Township, NJ 143 117 26 21.2 26.0
Charlotte-Mecklenburg1, NC 2,196 1,717 479 21.2 27.2
Nashville, TN 1,637 1,312 325 21.1 26.4
Honolulu, HI 2,531 2,057 474 21.1 25.9
Akron, OH 461 418 43 21.1 23.2
Springfield, OH 143 127 16 21.1 23.7
Decatur, IL 189 160 29 21.0 24.8
Clearwater, FL 319 228 91 20.9 29.2
Sanford, FL 131 114 17 20.9 24.0
Greenville, NC 232 181 51 20.8 26.7
Passaic, NJ 176 146 30 20.8 25.1
Warwick, RI 207 171 36 20.8 25.2
Lowell, MA 295 225 70 20.7 27.2
Milford, CT 119 109 10 20.6 22.5
Seattle, WA 1,801 1,289 512 20.6 28.7
St. Paul, MN 792 595 197 20.5 27.2
Manchester, CT 152 119 33 20.4 26.0
Athens-Clarke County, GA 303 239 64 20.3 25.8
Quincy, MA 219 190 29 20.3 23.4
New Rochelle, NY 219 158 61 20.2 28.1
Tempe, AZ 472 335 137 20.2 28.4
High Point, NC 260 215 45 20.1 24.3
Rock Hill, SC 180 137 43 20.1 26.4
Hollywood, FL 450 292 158 20.1 31.0
Hampton, VA 377 277 100 20.1 27.3
Phoenix, AZ 3,986 2,979 1,007 20.1 26.8
Nashua, NH 235 174 61 20.0 27.1
West New York, NJ 110 101 9 20.0 21.8
Sunrise, FL 261 174 87 20.0 29.9
Anderson, IN 125 112 13 20.0 22.3
Fort Worth, TX 1,940 1,536 404 19.9 25.2
Lafayette, LA 305 245 60 19.9 24.8
Kenosha, WI 209 199 10 19.9 20.9
Bethlehem, PA 176 150 26 19.9 23.3
Toledo, OH 674 569 105 19.9 23.6
Murfreesboro, TN 273 223 50 19.9 24.3
West Hartford, CT 145 126 19 19.8 22.8
Clarkstown Town, NY 183 159 24 19.8 22.8
Frederick, MD 175 132 43 19.8 26.2
Springfield, MO 397 318 79 19.8 24.7
Scranton, PA 170 150 20 19.7 22.3
Tulsa, OK 881 783 98 19.6 22.1
Canton, OH 163 143 20 19.6 22.4
Clarksville, TN 327 269 58 19.6 23.8
Austin, TX 2,252 1,628 624 19.5 27.0
McAllen, TX 404 265 139 19.5 29.8
Harlingen, TX 174 131 43 19.5 25.9
Norwalk, CT 203 169 34 19.5 23.4
Lynn, MA 197 179 18 19.5 21.4
Pawtucket, RI 170 138 32 19.4 23.9
Manchester, NH 269 213 56 19.4 24.4
Temple, TX 158 132 26 19.4 23.2
Aurora, CO 773 651 122 19.3 22.9
Bartlett, TN 141 107 34 19.3 25.4
Margate, FL 164 106 58 19.3 29.8
Baytown, TX 193 143 50 19.2 25.9
Auburn, AL 111 105 6 19.2 20.3
Mount Pleasant, SC 168 134 34 19.1 24.0
Oak Lawn, IL 127 109 18 19.1 22.3
Lafayette, IN 169 130 39 19.1 24.8
Jupiter, FL 126 108 18 19.1 22.2
Concord, NC 182 155 27 19.0 22.4
Plantation, FL 252 167 85 19.0 28.7
Meriden, CT 130 116 14 19.0 21.3
Dearborn, MI 213 185 28 19.0 21.9
Omaha, NE 943 795 148 19.0 22.6
Longview, TX 215 157 58 19.0 26.0
Fort Smith, AR 214 166 48 19.0 24.5
Indianapolis, IN 1,813 1,591 222 19.0 21.6
Bowling Green, KY 151 112 39 19.0 25.6
Conway, AR 155 115 40 18.9 25.5
Kirkland, WA 127 95 32 18.9 25.3
Franklin, TN 146 122 24 18.8 22.5
Berwyn, IL 146 107 39 18.8 25.6
Tyler, TX 234 188 46 18.8 23.4
North Bergen Township, NJ 134 116 18 18.8 21.7
Bristol, CT 138 114 24 18.8 22.7
Broomfield, CO 193 109 84 18.7 33.2
Reading, PA 191 166 25 18.7 21.6
Madison, WI 555 445 110 18.7 23.4
Waco, TX 325 240 85 18.7 25.3
Tallahassee, FL 474 346 128 18.7 25.6
Hamilton Township, Mercer County, NJ 201 166 35 18.6 22.6
Chapel Hill, NC 136 109 27 18.6 23.2
Louisville Metro, KY 1,423 1,239 184 18.6 21.4
Stratford, CT 103 96 7 18.4 19.8
Woodbridge Township, NJ 249 185 64 18.4 24.7
Everett, WA 233 193 40 18.3 22.1
Jacksonville, FL 2,972 1,540 1,432 18.3 35.4
Lakewood, CO 410 267 143 18.2 28.0
Cherry Hill Township, NJ 143 130 13 18.2 20.0
North Miami, FL 141 111 30 18.2 23.1
Bellevue, NE 108 94 14 18.2 20.9
Lakewood, OH 115 94 21 18.2 22.2
Waterloo, IA 134 125 9 18.1 19.4
Peoria, IL 236 209 27 18.1 20.5
Wichita Falls, TX 274 191 83 18.1 26.0
Albuquerque, NM 1,413 999 414 18.0 25.5
Cicero, IL 177 152 25 18.0 21.0
Sugar Land, TX 172 149 23 18.0 20.7
Tucson, AZ 1,242 955 287 18.0 23.4
Scottsdale, AZ 638 401 237 17.9 28.6
Laredo, TX 513 440 73 17.9 20.9
Brockton, MA 190 170 20 17.9 20.0
Southfield, MI 160 129 31 17.9 22.1
Hendersonville, TN 121 94 27 17.8 22.9
Rockford, IL 301 271 30 17.8 19.8
Mission, TX 196 143 53 17.8 24.3
Las Cruces, NM 266 177 89 17.7 26.6
San Angelo, TX 217 170 47 17.7 22.6
Danbury, CT 150 145 5 17.7 18.3
Council Bluffs, IA 131 111 20 17.7 20.9
Raleigh, NC 858 743 115 17.7 20.4
Hoffman Estates, IL 108 92 16 17.6 20.7
Miami Gardens, FL 255 196 59 17.6 22.9
Dubuque, IA 109 103 6 17.6 18.6
Allentown, PA 232 210 22 17.6 19.4
Bryan, TX 171 138 33 17.6 21.8
Fayetteville, NC 516 361 155 17.5 25.1
Hamilton, OH 134 110 24 17.5 21.3
Virginia Beach, VA 955 783 172 17.5 21.3
Grand Junction, CO 199 104 95 17.5 33.4
Tonawanda Town, NY 147 102 45 17.5 25.2
Fairfield, CT 111 105 6 17.5 18.5
Plymouth, MA 118 100 18 17.5 20.6
New Britain, CT 139 128 11 17.4 18.9
Tacoma, WA 394 353 41 17.4 19.4
Gloucester Township, NJ 132 113 19 17.4 20.3
Framingham, MA 133 121 12 17.4 19.1
Killeen, TX 314 229 85 17.4 23.8
Pasadena, TX 339 268 71 17.3 21.9
Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department, NV 4,814 2,563 2,251 17.3 32.5
Alpharetta, GA 111 104 7 17.3 18.5
Smyrna, GA 101 91 10 17.3 19.2
Lawton, OK 238 171 67 17.3 24.1
Springdale, AR 169 124 45 17.3 23.6
Mesa, AZ 1,174 780 394 17.3 26.0
Davie, FL 237 164 73 17.3 25.0
Boulder, CO 276 173 103 17.3 27.5
Green Bay, WI 221 183 38 17.3 20.8
Cranston, RI 163 138 25 17.2 20.3
La Crosse, WI 107 89 18 17.2 20.6
Brick Township, NJ 182 130 52 17.1 24.0
Richmond, CA 276 182 94 17.1 26.0
Fort Wayne, IN 498 439 59 17.1 19.4
Battle Creek, MI 122 105 17 17.1 19.9
Pueblo, CO 238 186 52 17.1 21.8
Long Beach, CA 1,131 801 330 17.0 24.1
Conroe, TX 142 102 40 17.0 23.7
Glendale, AZ 523 397 126 17.0 22.4
Largo, FL 177 134 43 17.0 22.5
Orland Park, IL 124 97 27 17.0 21.7
Clifton, NJ 173 144 29 17.0 20.4
Malden, MA 114 103 11 17.0 18.8
Erie, PA 199 173 26 17.0 19.5
Lawrence, KS 184 151 33 16.9 20.6
Jacksonville, NC 151 121 30 16.9 21.1
Southampton Town, NY 119 85 34 16.9 23.7
Lubbock, TX 556 401 155 16.9 23.4
Hamden, CT 129 103 26 16.9 21.1
Midwest City, OK 121 94 27 16.9 21.7
Florissant, MO 111 88 23 16.8 21.2
Harrisonburg, VA 99 85 14 16.8 19.6
Revere, MA 101 89 12 16.8 19.1
Oklahoma City, OK 1,382 1,001 381 16.8 23.2
Owensboro, KY 135 97 38 16.8 23.4
Parsippany-Troy Hills Township, NJ 108 90 18 16.7 20.1
Cheyenne, WY 124 102 22 16.7 20.3
Casper, WY 137 95 42 16.7 24.1
Westminster, CO 262 183 79 16.7 23.9
Flagstaff, AZ 158 111 47 16.7 23.7
Yuma, AZ 237 159 78 16.6 24.8
Joliet, IL 314 247 67 16.6 21.1
St. Charles, MO 152 111 41 16.6 22.8
Edison Township, NJ 217 168 49 16.6 21.5
Wichita, KS 821 642 179 16.6 21.2
Lexington, KY 604 502 102 16.6 20.0
Lansing, MI 220 190 30 16.6 19.2
New Braunfels, TX 125 100 25 16.5 20.7
Euless, TX 132 88 44 16.5 24.8
Lauderhill, FL 126 114 12 16.5 18.2
Pasadena, CA 331 230 101 16.5 23.7
Lakewood, WA 115 98 17 16.5 19.4
San Antonio, TX 2,883 2,276 607 16.5 20.9
Pocatello, ID 130 91 39 16.5 23.6
Elgin, IL 215 180 35 16.5 19.7
Bensalem Township, PA 129 100 29 16.5 21.3
Duluth, MN 174 143 31 16.5 20.0
Coconut Creek, FL 127 90 37 16.5 23.2
Skokie, IL 142 107 35 16.4 21.8
Amarillo, TX 374 323 51 16.4 19.0
Arlington, TX 820 623 197 16.4 21.6
Waukesha, WI 148 116 32 16.3 20.8
Toms River Township, NJ 179 150 29 16.3 19.4
Homestead, FL 140 102 38 16.2 22.3
Franklin Township, Somerset County, NJ 118 102 16 16.2 18.8
Somerville, MA 138 125 13 16.2 17.9
Cheektowaga Town, NY 167 128 39 16.2 21.1
Howell Township, NJ 100 83 17 16.2 19.5
Portland, OR 1,195 966 229 16.2 20.0
Weymouth, MA 105 88 17 16.1 19.2
St. Peters, MO 109 86 23 16.1 20.4
Davenport, IA 188 163 25 16.1 18.6
Rogers, AR 129 93 36 16.1 22.3
Independence, MO 269 189 80 16.1 22.9
Blue Springs, MO 117 85 32 16.1 22.1
Medford, MA 94 92 2 16.1 16.4
Bismarck, ND 131 103 28 16.1 20.4
Chesapeake, VA 476 365 111 16.0 20.9
Waukegan, IL 183 143 40 16.0 20.5
Abington Township, Montgomery County, PA 109 89 20 16.0 19.6
Inglewood, CA 252 178 74 16.0 22.6
Gardena, CA 123 95 28 15.9 20.6
Roswell, GA 204 146 58 15.8 22.1
Bloomington, IL 157 122 35 15.8 20.4
Newton, MA 169 137 32 15.8 19.5
Victoria, TX 143 101 42 15.8 22.3
Coral Springs, FL 296 197 99 15.8 23.7
Peabody, MA 93 82 11 15.7 17.8
Cedar Rapids, IA 263 202 61 15.7 20.5
Rapid City, SD 142 110 32 15.7 20.3
North Port, FL 115 92 23 15.7 19.6
Middletown Township, NJ 133 105 28 15.7 19.9
Oakland, CA 891 626 265 15.7 22.3
North Richland Hills, TX 170 103 67 15.7 25.9
Ogden, UT 160 133 27 15.6 18.8
Saginaw, MI 88 80 8 15.6 17.2
Mansfield, TX 196 91 105 15.6 33.5
Janesville, WI 111 99 12 15.6 17.4
Mount Prospect, IL 102 84 18 15.4 18.7
Schaumburg, IL 152 115 37 15.4 20.4
Elyria, OH 100 84 16 15.4 18.3
Fayetteville, AR 161 116 45 15.4 21.4
Grand Rapids, MI 366 292 74 15.4 19.3
El Paso, TX 1,254 1,035 219 15.3 18.6
Miramar, FL 260 193 67 15.3 20.6
Grand Forks, ND 97 82 15 15.2 18.0
Upper Darby Township, PA 145 126 19 15.2 17.5
Bolingbrook, IL 146 112 34 15.2 19.8
Casa Grande, AZ 109 76 33 15.2 21.7
Mesquite, TX 293 219 74 15.1 20.2
Newport Beach, CA 210 132 78 15.1 24.1
Longmont, CO 182 134 48 15.1 20.5
Lawrence, MA 133 117 16 15.1 17.1
Greeley, CO 250 145 105 15.1 26.0
Sioux City, IA 147 125 22 15.0 17.6
Des Plaines, IL 107 88 19 15.0 18.2
Idaho Falls, ID 128 87 41 15.0 22.1
Normal, IL 92 79 13 15.0 17.4
Arvada, CO 225 163 62 15.0 20.6
Yakima, WA 181 139 42 14.9 19.4
Warner Robins, GA 140 103 37 14.9 20.2
Berkeley, CA 265 171 94 14.9 23.1
St. Joseph, MO 156 115 41 14.9 20.2
Beaverton, OR 173 137 36 14.8 18.7
Piscataway Township, NJ 103 84 19 14.8 18.2
Eau Claire, WI 137 99 38 14.8 20.5
Santa Barbara, CA 202 133 69 14.8 22.5
West Chester Township, OH 113 87 26 14.8 19.2
Colorado Springs, CO 912 638 274 14.8 21.1
Oshkosh, WI 115 98 17 14.7 17.3
St. Cloud, MN 121 98 23 14.7 18.2
Appleton, WI 133 108 25 14.7 18.1
Midland, TX 228 170 58 14.7 19.7
Irving, TX 478 329 149 14.7 21.3
Warren, MI 234 197 37 14.7 17.4
Muncie, IN 109 103 6 14.7 15.5
Richardson, TX 239 151 88 14.6 23.1
Palm Bay, FL 231 153 78 14.6 22.1
Santa Cruz, CA 110 89 21 14.6 18.1
Missoula, MT 120 99 21 14.6 17.7
Lake Havasu City, AZ 115 78 37 14.6 21.5
Burbank, CA 238 153 85 14.6 22.7
Buckeye, AZ 103 76 27 14.6 19.7
Fresno, CA 934 736 198 14.5 18.5
Aurora, IL 351 289 62 14.5 17.6
Sioux Falls, SD 264 229 35 14.5 16.7
Moore, OK 102 81 21 14.3 18.0
Pearland, TX 177 135 42 14.3 18.7
Arlington Heights, IL 135 107 28 14.2 17.9
Kettering, OH 105 80 25 14.2 18.6
Redmond, WA 120 79 41 14.2 21.5
Lee's Summit, MO 186 130 56 14.2 20.3
Great Falls, MT 125 84 41 14.2 21.1
West Valley, UT 231 189 42 14.1 17.3
Columbia, MO 183 156 27 14.1 16.5
Odessa, TX 204 146 58 14.1 19.7
Rio Rancho, NM 222 126 96 14.1 24.8
Jackson Township, NJ 95 78 17 14.1 17.1
Torrance, CA 308 208 100 14.1 20.8
Whittier, CA 171 122 49 14.1 19.7
Sunnyvale, CA 267 201 66 14.0 18.6
San Diego, CA 2,481 1,866 615 13.9 18.5
Hillsboro, OR 178 131 47 13.9 18.9
Norman, OK 213 158 55 13.9 18.7
Shawnee, KS 111 88 23 13.8 17.5
Cedar Park, TX 101 72 29 13.8 19.4
Corpus Christi, TX 619 432 187 13.8 19.8
Port Orange, FL 94 79 15 13.8 16.4
Noblesville, IN 84 74 10 13.8 15.6
Champaign, IL 136 112 24 13.8 16.7
Haverhill, MA 97 85 12 13.7 15.7
Lewisville, TX 188 137 51 13.7 18.8
Colonie Town, NY 146 106 40 13.6 18.8
St. George, UT 139 103 36 13.6 18.3
Goodyear, AZ 121 91 30 13.6 18.1
Brooklyn Park, MN 133 105 28 13.6 17.2
St. Clair Shores, MI 86 81 5 13.5 14.4
Bellevue, WA 208 170 38 13.5 16.5
Cape Coral, FL 306 215 91 13.5 19.2
Nampa, ID 160 112 48 13.4 19.2
Medford, OR 137 102 35 13.4 18.0
Boise, ID 363 283 80 13.4 17.2
Brownsville, TX 326 242 84 13.4 18.0
National City, CA 110 80 30 13.4 18.4
Ontario, CA 320 224 96 13.3 19.1
Bellingham, WA 157 110 47 13.3 19.0
Edmond, OK 138 111 27 13.3 16.5
Missouri City, TX 121 94 27 13.3 17.1
Federal Way, WA 150 122 28 13.3 16.3
O'Fallon, MO 135 107 28 13.3 16.7
Billings, MT 166 141 25 13.3 15.6
Carmel, IN 131 108 23 13.2 16.0
Garland, TX 432 310 122 13.2 18.4
Loveland, CO 131 91 40 13.2 18.9
Sacramento, CA 861 627 234 13.2 18.1
Auburn, WA 111 95 16 13.2 15.4
Avondale, AZ 155 103 52 13.1 19.8
Sandy Springs, GA 147 128 19 13.1 15.0
Chandler, AZ 472 316 156 13.0 19.4
Amherst Town, NY 153 153 0 13.0 13.0
Spokane, WA 384 275 109 13.0 18.1
Allen, TX 163 115 48 13.0 18.4
Dearborn Heights, MI 91 74 17 12.9 15.9
Reno, NV 355 298 57 12.9 15.4
Bloomington, MN 140 109 31 12.9 16.5
Fargo, ND 160 141 19 12.8 14.6
Farmington Hills, MI 134 103 31 12.8 16.7
Redondo Beach, CA 142 87 55 12.8 20.9
Tinley Park, IL 100 73 27 12.8 17.5
Chino, CA 153 102 51 12.8 19.2
Cary, NC 215 180 35 12.8 15.2
Georgetown, TX 98 64 34 12.7 19.5
Old Bridge Township, NJ 109 84 25 12.7 16.5
Denton, TX 203 151 52 12.7 17.1
Carrollton, TX 196 158 38 12.7 15.7
Watsonville, CA 81 66 15 12.7 15.6
San Bernardino, CA 428 272 156 12.7 19.9
Livonia, MI 156 121 35 12.6 16.2
Fort Collins, CO 274 187 87 12.6 18.4
Rowlett, TX 105 73 32 12.5 18.0
Thornton, CO 215 154 61 12.5 17.5
Lakewood Township, NJ 145 117 28 12.5 15.5
South San Francisco, CA 109 81 28 12.5 16.8
Henderson, NV 556 328 228 12.4 21.1
Anchorage, AK 511 372 139 12.4 17.1
College Station, TX 173 120 53 12.4 17.9
Ramapo Town, NY 128 106 22 12.4 15.0
Plano, TX 480 339 141 12.4 17.5
Mountain View, CA 138 94 44 12.4 18.2
Renton, WA 145 116 29 12.4 15.5
Glendale, CA 356 240 116 12.3 18.3
League City, TX 146 106 40 12.3 17.0
Rochester, MN 185 132 53 12.2 17.0
Hayward, CA 282 179 103 12.1 19.1
North Las Vegas, NV 394 269 125 12.1 17.8
Lincoln, NE 414 320 94 12.1 15.7
Burnsville, MN 84 74 10 12.1 13.7
Sandy, UT 139 109 30 12.1 15.4
Flower Mound, TX 121 82 39 12.1 17.8
Broken Arrow, OK 168 121 47 12.0 16.7
Wheaton, IL 80 64 16 12.0 15.0
Palo Alto, CA 134 79 55 12.0 20.3
Eugene, OR 316 189 127 12.0 20.0
Grand Prairie, TX 329 217 112 11.9 18.1
Salem, OR 302 187 115 11.9 19.2
Oceanside, CA 282 203 79 11.9 16.5
Peoria, AZ 280 186 94 11.7 17.7
Albany, OR 90 60 30 11.7 17.6
Flint, MI 140 119 21 11.7 13.8
Walnut Creek, CA 110 77 33 11.7 16.7
Kennewick, WA 104 90 14 11.7 13.5
Sparks, NV 147 108 39 11.7 15.9
Riverside, CA 520 366 154 11.7 16.6
Gilroy, CA 85 58 27 11.6 17.0
Milpitas, CA 100 79 21 11.5 14.6
Frisco, TX 199 142 57 11.5 16.2
Tulare, CA 96 70 26 11.5 15.8
Concord, CA 195 144 51 11.5 15.6
Bristol Township, PA 72 63 9 11.5 13.1
Santa Clara, CA 201 137 64 11.5 16.8
Bend, OR 113 90 23 11.5 14.4
Fishers, IN 99 91 8 11.5 12.5
Sterling Heights, MI 190 149 41 11.5 14.6
Richland, WA 69 57 12 11.4 13.8
McKinney, TX 203 157 46 11.4 14.7
Costa Mesa, CA 198 128 70 11.4 17.6
Redlands, CA 115 80 35 11.4 16.3
Brentwood, CA 74 60 14 11.4 14.0
Oxnard, CA 391 229 162 11.3 19.4
Arcadia, CA 101 65 36 11.3 17.6
Centennial, CO 153 118 35 11.3 14.7
Ventura, CA 172 123 49 11.3 15.9
Springfield, OR 123 68 55 11.3 20.5
Pleasanton, CA 112 81 31 11.3 15.6
Wyoming, MI 95 82 13 11.3 13.0
State College, PA 76 64 12 11.2 13.3
San Jose, CA 1,435 1,094 341 11.2 14.7
Hawthorne, CA 133 96 37 11.2 15.5
Naperville, IL 258 160 98 11.2 18.1
Turlock, CA 116 78 38 11.2 16.6
Huntington Park, CA 106 66 40 11.2 17.9
Novi, MI 83 62 21 11.1 14.9
Meridian, ID 111 86 25 11.1 14.4
Iowa City, IA 100 77 23 11.1 14.4
La Mesa, CA 94 65 29 11.1 16.1
Tustin, CA 131 86 45 11.1 16.9
Monterey Park, CA 99 68 31 11.1 16.2
Orange, CA 216 155 61 11.1 15.5
Gresham, OR 152 120 32 11.1 14.0
Redwood City, CA 115 87 28 11.1 14.7
Stockton, CA 520 331 189 11.1 17.4
Taylor, MI 88 69 19 11.0 14.1
Troy, MI 131 90 41 11.0 16.1
Greenwood, IN 80 57 23 11.0 15.5
Millcreek Township, Erie County, PA 74 59 15 11.0 13.8
El Cajon, CA 181 112 69 11.0 17.8
Lodi, CA 100 70 30 11.0 15.7
Royal Oak, MI 74 63 11 10.9 12.8
Fairfield, CA 178 117 61 10.9 16.6
Montebello, CA 102 69 33 10.9 16.1
Spokane Valley, WA 100 99 1 10.9 11.0
Minnetonka, MN 72 55 17 10.8 14.2
Pasco, WA 80 69 11 10.8 12.5
Layton, UT 104 75 29 10.8 15.0
Eden Prairie, MN 91 67 24 10.8 14.7
Castle Rock, CO 76 54 22 10.8 15.2
Redding, CA 130 98 32 10.8 14.3
West Bloomfield Township, MI 89 70 19 10.7 13.7
Alameda, CA 112 81 31 10.7 14.8
Vancouver, WA 200 178 22 10.7 12.0
La Habra, CA 100 66 34 10.7 16.2
Surprise, AZ 175 129 46 10.7 14.5
West Des Moines, IA 77 62 15 10.7 13.2
Kent, WA 181 130 51 10.6 14.8
Novato, CA 72 56 16 10.6 13.6
Modesto, CA 291 216 75 10.6 14.2
Petaluma, CA 83 62 21 10.5 14.1
Visalia, CA 197 134 63 10.5 15.4
Anaheim, CA 506 360 146 10.4 14.7
Porterville, CA 82 58 24 10.4 14.8
Eagan, MN 79 68 11 10.4 12.1
Union City, CA 98 74 24 10.4 13.8
Carlsbad, CA 158 112 46 10.4 14.6
San Mateo, CA 137 103 34 10.4 13.8
Gilbert, AZ 335 222 113 10.4 15.6
San Leandro, CA 126 90 36 10.4 14.5
Chico, CA 145 90 55 10.3 16.6
Pittsburg, CA 84 67 17 10.3 12.9
Woodland, CA 73 58 15 10.3 13.0
Daly City, CA 147 106 41 10.3 14.2
Merced, CA 111 83 28 10.2 13.7
Fountain Valley, CA 76 58 18 10.2 13.4
Ann Arbor, MI 143 117 26 10.2 12.4
El Monte, CA 161 117 44 10.1 14.0
Greece Town, NY 104 98 6 10.1 10.7
Coon Rapids, MN 71 63 8 10.1 11.4
Escondido, CA 199 149 50 10.1 13.5
Buena Park, CA 124 83 41 10.1 15.0
Fullerton, CA 204 139 65 10.0 14.7
Maple Grove, MN 78 63 15 10.0 12.4
Huntington Beach, CA 308 195 113 10.0 15.8
Blaine, MN 69 58 11 10.0 11.9
Citrus Heights, CA 127 85 42 10.0 14.9
Woodbury, MN 73 63 10 10.0 11.6
Pomona, CA 257 151 106 10.0 17.0
Livermore, CA 128 82 46 9.9 15.5
Bowie, MD 60 55 5 9.9 10.8
San Rafael, CA 78 58 20 9.9 13.3
Glendora, CA 84 50 34 9.8 16.5
Folsom, CA 98 72 26 9.8 13.3
Bakersfield, CA 473 347 126 9.8 13.3
Yuba City, CA 86 64 22 9.7 13.1
Alhambra, CA 124 82 42 9.7 14.7
Simi Valley, CA 173 122 51 9.6 13.7
Corvallis, OR 91 53 38 9.6 16.5
South Jordan, UT 58 50 8 9.6 11.1
Santa Ana, CA 578 319 259 9.6 17.4
Salinas, CA 196 147 49 9.5 12.7
Vacaville, CA 142 89 53 9.5 15.1
Westminster, CA 121 87 34 9.5 13.2
Roseville, CA 182 116 66 9.4 14.8
Downey, CA 144 107 37 9.4 12.7
Corona, CA 205 148 57 9.4 13.0
Santa Rosa, CA 228 160 68 9.4 13.3
Orem, UT 119 86 33 9.4 12.9
Shoreline, WA 67 51 16 9.3 12.3
Lakeville, MN 62 53 9 9.3 10.9
Shelby Township, MI 89 69 20 9.3 12.0
Upland, CA 92 70 22 9.3 12.2
Westland, MI 98 77 21 9.2 11.8
Madera, CA 78 58 20 9.2 12.4
Clovis, CA 137 90 47 9.2 14.0
Irvine, CA 280 200 80 9.2 12.9
Santa Maria, CA 136 93 43 9.2 13.4
Tracy, CA 116 78 38 9.2 13.6
Hanford, CA 76 50 26 9.1 13.9
West Jordan, UT 124 97 27 9.1 11.6
Clinton Township, MI 111 87 24 9.0 11.4
Canton Township, MI 114 80 34 9.0 12.8
Rialto, CA 142 91 51 9.0 14.0
Fontana, CA 264 179 85 8.9 13.1
Plymouth, MN 73 64 9 8.9 10.1
Placentia, CA 69 46 23 8.9 13.3
Baldwin Park, CA 95 68 27 8.9 12.4
Rocklin, CA 78 52 26 8.8 13.3
Ames, IA 75 52 23 8.8 12.7
Garden Grove, CA 212 153 59 8.7 12.1
Manteca, CA 82 60 22 8.7 11.9
Davis, CA 89 58 31 8.7 13.4
Colton, CA 67 46 21 8.6 12.5
Provo, UT 149 100 49 8.6 12.7
Napa, CA 106 67 39 8.5 13.5
Marysville, WA 78 52 26 8.5 12.7
Chula Vista, CA 299 210 89 8.4 12.0
West Covina, CA 148 90 58 8.3 13.7
Cathedral City, CA 71 44 27 8.3 13.4
Antioch, CA 112 86 26 8.2 10.7
Elk Grove, CA 205 127 78 8.1 13.1
Indio, CA 103 63 40 8.0 13.1
Fremont, CA 273 175 98 8.0 12.5
Murrieta, CA 125 84 41 7.9 11.7
Vallejo, CA 123 92 31 7.8 10.4
Delano, CA 68 42 26 7.7 12.5
San Ramon, CA 74 57 17 7.7 10.0
Johns Creek, GA 70 61 9 7.6 8.7
South Gate, CA 114 71 43 7.4 11.9
Northern York Regional, PA 53 49 4 7.3 7.9
York Area Regional, PA 49 44 5 7.2 8.1
Hemet, CA 79 57 22 7.0 9.7
Waterford Township, MI 66 50 16 6.9 9.1
Colerain Township, OH 43 39 4 6.7 7.4

Source: 2012 Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program, Full-time Law Enforcement Employees  

Interpreting the Data

The FBI defines officers as employees who “ordinarily carry a firearm and a badge, have full arrest powers, and are paid from governmental funds set aside specifically to pay sworn law enforcement.” Common civilian positions include dispatchers, clerks and correctional officers. Multiple agencies serving a single jurisdiction are not reflected in per capita totals. Employee counts were reported by individual law enforcement agencies and are current as of October 2012.