Police officers in Portland, Ore., have seen their ranks slowly dwindle as their fellow officers retire or seek other opportunities. At the same time, the city's population and number of 911 calls keep climbing. Officials say officers often don’t even have time to investigate low-level crimes.

The situation prompted police chief Mike Marshman to call attention to what he considers a “staffing crisis” as the city council prepared for a contentious vote on a new contract that included pay hikes intended to better retain and recruit officers. The debates about the contract, which was approved last week, are a situation that police chiefs and local elected officials often find themselves in: fighting over proposed cuts or funding increases. 

The predicament raises an important question: How many officers does a police department need?

Data reported by law enforcement agencies to the FBI depict a wide variation in the size of departments. Washington, D.C., for instance, maintains by far the largest police presence of any city, with about 57 officers for every 10,000 residents. Not too far behind is the Wilmington, Del., Police Department, employing approximately 43 officers for every 10,000 residents. Those numbers seem big when compared with a place like San Jose, Calif., which has only 9 officers per 10,000 people.

In general, the largest cities have a greater presence of police officers than smaller and mid-sized jurisdictions. On average, all localities with populations of at least 50,000 employed 16.6 officers and 21.4 total personnel for every 10,000 residents in 2015, according to the FBI data.

Jurisdiction Population Average Total Personnel Per 10k Population Average Officers Per 10k Population Number of Agencies
50,000-100,000 20.4 15.9 419
100,000-200,000 21.0 16.1 165
200,000-500,000 24.4 18.6 73
500,000+ 29.8 23.7 33
All Departments 21.4 16.6 690

SOURCE: Governing calculations of 2015 FBI UCR data for cities of populations exceeding 50,000. While the FBI data is useful for comparing cities, it doesn't tell us how many police officers a department needs. In fact, there's no national standard for how many police officers cities should have per capita.

Police association groups and experts think they have the answer. They generally advocate that officials base staffing decisions on a systematic analysis of an agency’s current and projected future workloads. Research published by the U.S. Department of Justice outlines such a performance-based approach to staffing, which relies, in part, on examining 911 calls. 

Compared to other methods, this approach better accounts for characteristics specific to an individual agency or its jurisdiction. Still, it’s not without its limitations: It's labor-intensive, and the research suggests that it works best in jurisdictions that get at least 15,000 calls a year.

Despite its cheerleaders, the “workload” approach is rarely utilized. In fact, it’s the least commonly used method, according to an analysis published by the International City/County Management Association’s (ICMA) Center for Public Safety Management.

Instead, one of the most common approaches is to base staffing on population. But that doesn’t necessarily reflect agencies’ actual workloads.

Consider, for instance, how major cities see their populations swell significantly during the daytime. Roughly half a million workers commute to Washington, D.C., each weekday along with thousands more tourists.

Another common approach bases staffing levels on predetermined minimums set by prior policies. Such arrangements are often difficult to adjust as they’re frequently cited in collective bargaining agreements.

Last year, the San Francisco Board of Supervisors passed a resolution proposing that the police department raise its minimum staffing level to match the city’s population growth since 1994, when a proposition setting a minimum staffing level was passed. A subsequent budget and legislative analyst report advised the city to instead conduct a workload-based assessment.

Police staffing is also subject to the budget. In an era of limited spending, cities can’t afford to pay for more than they need. But understaffing can also lead to negative financial consequences. 

A recent San Jose audit found that mounting vacancies resulted in $36 million in overtime costs last year, consuming nearly 10 percent of the police department’s total expenses.

In addition to the ups and downs of a budget, upticks in crime frequently push officials to increase police staffing.

In Chicago, Mayor Rahm Emanuel initially rejected calls to hire more police but recently agreed to provide funding for nearly 1,000 additional officers in an effort to halt the city’s well-publicized spike in homicides. But the problem with tying staffing to crime levels, according to the ICMA analysis, is that it essentially incentivizes poor performance.

And of course politics factors into police numbers. Around election season, crime frequently surfaces as a political issue, leading some officials to beef up police staffing. 

Economist Steven Levitt found a significant link between elections and hiring of officers in a 1997 research paper. In the agencies that Levitt reviewed, the number of sworn officers per capita grew by 2 percent on average during mayoral and gubernatorial election years and remained flat in other years.

On a smaller level, states and the federal government play a role in hiring. 

Several agencies have been the beneficiaries of federal grants from the Justice Department’s COPS Hiring Program, which funds up to 75 percent of new entry-level officer salaries for three years. Last fiscal year, the program awarded a total of $119 million to 184 law enforcement agencies.

City Police Staffing Data

This table shows the number of officers and total law enforcement, including civilian employees, per 10,000 residents in each city. Data is shown for all law enforcement agencies serving jurisdictions with a population of at least 50,000 that are recorded in the FBI data.

Data notes

Police Department Officers per 10K Population Total Police Employees per 10K Population Officer Count Total Police Employee Count
Washington, DC 56.9 66.7 3,826 4,487
Wilmington, Delaware 43.4 52.0 313 375
Baltimore, Maryland 42.6 47.6 2,646 2,960
New York, New York 41.4 58.9 35,395 50,366
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 40.9 46.1 6,413 7,229
Birmingham, Alabama 39.5 51.9 838 1,102
St. Louis, Missouri 38.8 55.4 1,230 1,757
Atlanta, Georgia 38.3 47.7 1,781 2,218
Newark, New Jersey 36.8 42.8 1,033 1,203
Daytona Beach, Florida 34.8 41.6 221 264
Rochester, New York 34.0 39.7 713 834
Albany, New York 33.9 43.8 335 433
East Orange, New Jersey 33.6 41.7 219 272
Detroit, Michigan 33.5 36.2 2,255 2,436
Hartford, Connecticut 33.2 36.8 413 458
Richmond, Virginia 33.2 40.1 732 885
Charleston, South Carolina 33.1 40.2 439 533
White Plains, New York 32.8 34.6 191 202
Coral Gables, Florida 32.7 43.8 171 229
New Haven, Connecticut 32.6 36.8 425 480
Charleston, West Virginia 32.5 37.3 163 187
Boston, Massachusetts 32.2 40.4 2,139 2,689
Jackson, Tennessee 31.7 38.3 214 258
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 31.4 41.9 1,886 2,518
Memphis, Tennessee 31.0 36.3 2,040 2,389
Yonkers, New York 30.7 34.8 620 702
Jersey City, New Jersey 30.7 35.3 814 936
Greenville, South Carolina 30.3 37.6 191 237
Springfield, Massachusetts 29.6 36.1 456 556
Baton Rouge, Louisiana 29.5 37.2 674 851
North Charleston, South Carolina 29.3 36.2 320 395
Syracuse, New York 28.7 33.5 414 482
Kansas City, Missouri 28.7 38.5 1,360 1,824
Kalamazoo, Michigan 28.7 34.6 219 264
Trenton, New Jersey 28.6 37.7 239 315
Ocala, Florida 28.5 40.6 165 235
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 28.4 30.9 872 948
Tuscaloosa, Alabama 28.4 36.2 277 353
Mount Vernon, New York 28.4 39.3 195 270
Rocky Mount, North Carolina 28.2 35.5 158 199
Norfolk, Virginia 28.2 32.0 692 786
Buffalo, New York 28.1 35.3 724 910
Fort Lauderdale, Florida 27.9 36.5 499 651
Irvington, New Jersey 27.9 32.4 152 177
Paterson, New Jersey 27.4 40.5 401 593
New Bedford, Massachusetts 27.3 31.7 259 301
Bayonne, New Jersey 27.0 43.9 180 292
Hammond, Indiana 27.0 30.3 210 236
Little Rock, Arkansas 26.8 32.5 532 646
Dallas, Texas 26.8 31.0 3,484 4,040
Columbia, South Carolina 26.6 32.8 352 434
Utica, New York 26.5 29.0 162 177
Tampa, Florida 26.3 33.5 960 1,222
North Little Rock, Arkansas 26.3 31.1 179 211
Rio Rancho, New Mexico 26.3 47.2 251 450
West Palm Beach, Florida 26.3 34.9 276 366
Shreveport, Louisiana 26.0 35.4 514 699
Orlando, Florida 26.0 33.6 697 903
San Francisco, California 25.9 31.4 2,236 2,711
Miami, Florida 25.9 33.3 1,133 1,459
Waterbury, Connecticut 25.8 30.4 281 331
Fall River, Massachusetts 25.4 30.9 225 274
Cambridge, Massachusetts 25.3 28.5 281 316
Portsmouth, Virginia 25.1 34.1 241 327
Racine, Wisconsin 25.0 28.9 195 225
Los Angeles, California 24.9 32.0 9,863 12,665
Montgomery, Alabama 24.9 32.7 495 651
Plainfield, New Jersey 24.8 30.1 127 154
Chattanooga, Tennessee 24.7 30.8 433 539
Chicopee, Massachusetts 24.7 25.7 138 144
Roanoke, Virginia 24.5 29.3 245 292
Youngstown, Ohio 24.5 31.4 158 203
Hoboken, New Jersey 24.4 27.8 132 150
Union City, New Jersey 24.2 29.2 167 202
Greenwich, Connecticut 24.1 28.4 152 179
New Brunswick, New Jersey 24.1 29.5 139 170
South Bend, Indiana 24.1 28.8 244 292
Portland, Maine 24.1 32.5 161 217
Dayton, Ohio 24.0 29.1 338 410
Bridgeport, Connecticut 24.0 27.5 356 408
Decatur, Alabama 24.0 26.9 133 149
Lancaster, Pennsylvania 23.9 27.2 142 161
Evansville, Indiana 23.8 26.4 287 318
Valdosta, Georgia 23.7 27.7 135 158
Dothan, Alabama 23.6 34.2 163 236
Providence, Rhode Island 23.6 28.5 423 511
Greensboro, North Carolina 23.5 27.3 671 781
Hempstead Village, New York 23.4 27.7 131 155
East Hartford, Connecticut 23.3 30.4 119 155
Lower Merion Township, Pennsylvania 23.3 25.7 136 150
Port Arthur, Texas 23.3 29.5 127 161
Delray Beach, Florida 23.3 32.2 154 213
Canton, Ohio 23.2 27.7 167 200
Union Township, New Jersey 23.1 31.9 134 185
Kenner, Louisiana 23.1 34.4 155 231
Winston-Salem, North Carolina 23.0 29.9 556 723
Savannah-Chatham Metropolitan, Georgia 22.9 32.0 551 768
Burlington, North Carolina 22.9 28.8 119 150
Elizabeth, New Jersey 22.9 30.5 296 395
Houston, Texas 22.8 28.9 5,178 6,577
Worcester, Massachusetts 22.7 25.5 417 467
Newport News, Virginia 22.7 30.7 416 562
Asheville, North Carolina 22.6 27.8 201 247
Salt Lake City, Utah 22.6 27.6 433 530
Akron, Ohio 22.5 24.5 445 484
Toledo, Ohio 22.5 24.5 629 686
West Haven, Connecticut 22.5 24.5 123 134
Topeka, Kansas 22.4 26.1 285 332
Bradenton, Florida 22.4 27.4 120 147
Wilmington, North Carolina 22.4 28.2 258 325
Waltham, Massachusetts 22.3 26.7 142 170
  27.8 34.3    
Decatur, Illinois 22.2 26.3 163 193
Quincy, Massachusetts 22.1 25.5 207 239
Marietta, Georgia 22.0 27.9 134 170
Gainesville, Florida 22.0 26.6 285 344
Columbus, Ohio 21.9 26.0 1,855 2,205
Kingsport, Tennessee 21.8 29.6 116 157
Gastonia, North Carolina 21.8 24.8 162 184
West Allis, Wisconsin 21.8 25.9 132 157
Schenectady, New York 21.7 25.5 143 168
Johnson City, Tennessee 21.7 26.1 144 173
Brookline, Massachusetts 21.7 25.7 129 153
Santa Monica, California 21.6 39.8 203 373
Terre Haute, Indiana 21.6 23.1 132 141
Doral, Florida 21.6 28.9 122 163
Stamford, Connecticut 21.6 25.8 280 334
New Britain, Connecticut 21.6 22.8 157 166
Lowell, Massachusetts 21.6 28.5 239 316
Denver, Colorado 21.5 25.4 1,468 1,735
Knoxville, Tennessee 21.4 26.4 397 491
Albany, Georgia 21.4 24.9 161 188
Lakeland, Florida 21.4 32.1 221 332
Nashville Metropolitan Police 21.3 26.5 1,404 1,742
Vineland, New Jersey 21.2 25.5 130 156
Huntsville, Alabama 21.2 29.3 403 557
Evanston, Illinois 21.1 29.6 160 225
Hampton, Virginia 21.0 29.3 287 400
Passaic, New Jersey 21.0 24.9 151 179
Clearwater, Florida 21.0 29.3 234 326
Jonesboro, Arkansas 21.0 22.8 154 167
Frederick, Maryland 21.0 26.7 145 185
Charlotte-Mecklenburg Police 21.0 26.5 1,840 2,329
Hollywood, Florida 21.0 30.0 314 449
Perth Amboy, New Jersey 20.9 25.9 110 136
Suffolk, Virginia 20.9 26.9 182 234
Las Vegas Metropolitan Police 20.9 30.9 3,264 4,825
Springfield, Ohio 20.7 23.1 124 138
Wayne Township, New Jersey 20.7 26.3 114 145
Lynchburg, Virginia 20.7 24.6 165 196
St. Petersburg, Florida 20.6 28.7 528 735
Springfield, Illinois 20.6 23.1 241 270
High Point, North Carolina 20.6 24.9 226 273
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 20.5 23.8 154 179
Palm Beach Gardens, Florida 20.5 29.9 108 158
Rock Hill, South Carolina 20.5 26.7 145 189
Joplin, Missouri 20.4 29.4 105 151
Longview, Texas 20.4 22.5 167 184
Mobile, Alabama 20.4 27.7 510 694
Greenville, North Carolina 20.3 25.9 185 236
Kenosha, Wisconsin 20.3 21.5 203 215
Meriden, Connecticut 20.3 22.1 122 133
Baytown, Texas 20.2 27.0 156 208
Milford, Connecticut 20.2 23.9 108 128
Tempe, Arizona 20.2 27.9 354 490
Warwick, Rhode Island 20.2 26.4 165 216
Dearborn, Michigan 20.1 24.9 191 236
Minneapolis, Minnesota 20.1 24.5 831 1,014
Alexandria, Virginia 20.0 26.3 306 401
Lynn, Massachusetts 20.0 21.9 185 203
Scranton, Pennsylvania 20.0 22.6 150 170
Honolulu, Hawaii 20.0 25.4 1,995 2,539
Temple, Texas 19.9 23.5 143 169
Gloucester Township, New Jersey 19.9 23.5 127 150
West Hartford, Connecticut 19.9 23.1 126 146
St. Paul, Minnesota 19.9 26.3 597 790
Durham, North Carolina 19.9 27.0 512 696
Clarkstown Town, New York 19.8 22.8 163 187
New Rochelle, New York 19.8 27.0 159 217
Bartlett, Tennessee 19.8 25.4 116 149
Seattle, Washington 19.7 28.1 1,350 1,919
Taunton, Massachusetts 19.7 20.8 112 118
Anderson, Indiana 19.7 22.8 109 126
North Miami, Florida 19.7 25.2 122 156
Nashua, New Hampshire 19.7 27.0 172 236
Bristol, Connecticut 19.6 23.9 119 145
West New York, New Jersey 19.5 21.6 104 115
Manchester, New Hampshire 19.5 24.6 216 272
Boynton Beach, Florida 19.5 27.6 145 205
Springfield, Missouri 19.5 23.7 325 395
Pinellas Park, Florida 19.5 23.0 100 118
Stratford, Connecticut 19.4 20.2 103 107
Norwalk, Connecticut 19.4 23.8 172 211
Pawtucket, Rhode Island 19.3 23.7 138 170
Brockton, Massachusetts 19.3 21.4 183 203
Berwyn, Illinois 19.2 27.3 109 155
Tulsa, Oklahoma 19.2 23.2 769 931
Woodbridge Township, New Jersey 19.1 25.3 193 255
Madison, Wisconsin 19.1 23.7 475 589
Oak Lawn, Illinois 19.1 21.9 109 125
Sunrise, Florida 19.0 24.5 177 228
Clarksville, Tennessee 19.0 23.4 285 351
Athens-Clarke County, Georgia 18.9 24.2 229 292
Concord, North Carolina 18.9 22.0 165 192
McAllen, Texas 18.9 28.7 266 403
Rockford, Illinois 18.9 21.3 280 315
Aurora, Colorado 18.9 22.7 680 817
Margate, Florida 18.9 25.0 107 142
Fort Worth, Texas 18.8 24.1 1,557 2,000
Hendersonville, Tennessee 18.7 23.3 105 131
Hoover, Alabama 18.7 25.7 159 219
Tallahassee, Florida 18.7 22.2 354 422
Austin, Texas 18.6 24.4 1,750 2,290
Hamilton Township, Mercer County, New Jersey 18.6 22.7 166 202
Revere, Massachusetts 18.6 21.5 102 118
Manchester, Connecticut 18.6 23.8 108 138
North Bergen Township, New Jersey 18.6 20.2 117 127
Killeen, Texas 18.6 24.5 261 344
Lakewood, Ohio 18.6 22.9 94 116
Jacksonville, Florida 18.5 34.3 1,603 2,973
Fayetteville, North Carolina 18.4 28.3 377 579
Plymouth, Massachusetts 18.4 21.0 108 123
Joliet, Illinois 18.4 22.9 272 339
Cicero, Illinois 18.4 21.5 155 181
Grand Junction, Colorado 18.3 33.7 111 204
Indianapolis, Indiana 18.3 20.6 1,578 1,776
Fort Smith, Arkansas 18.3 24.7 160 216
Omaha, Nebraska 18.3 21.3 826 963
Louisville Metro, Kentucky 18.2 21.8 1,241 1,487
Reading, Pennsylvania 18.2 21.2 160 186
Cherry Hill Township, New Jersey 18.2 22.1 130 158
Medford, Massachusetts 18.2 18.7 105 108
Tyler, Texas 18.1 22.8 186 234
Cranston, Rhode Island 18.1 21.7 147 176
Waco, Texas 18.0 25.0 237 329
Battle Creek, Michigan 18.0 20.6 110 126
Laredo, Texas 17.9 21.0 460 537
Murfreesboro, Tennessee 17.9 21.9 222 271
Dubuque, Iowa 17.9 18.9 105 111
Green Bay, Wisconsin 17.9 21.6 188 227
Boca Raton, Florida 17.9 27.5 166 256
Blue Springs, Missouri 17.8 25.5 96 137
Lakewood, Colorado 17.8 28.4 270 429
Phoenix, Arizona 17.8 23.7 2,781 3,698
Largo, Florida 17.8 22.3 141 177
Tonawanda Town, New York 17.8 25.9 103 150
Plantation, Florida 17.7 27.3 165 254
Jupiter, Florida 17.7 21.8 110 135
Council Bluffs, Iowa 17.7 20.9 110 130
Allentown, Pennsylvania 17.7 19.5 211 233
Tucson, Arizona 17.6 23.1 932 1,222
Hamilton, Ohio 17.6 18.9 110 118
Bellevue, Nebraska 17.6 20.1 96 110
Yuma, Arizona 17.6 27.8 165 261
Springdale, Arkansas 17.6 23.8 137 186
Lawton, Oklahoma 17.6 24.3 170 235
Waterloo, Iowa 17.6 18.9 120 129
Pueblo, Colorado 17.6 22.2 191 242
Pasadena, Texas 17.5 22.0 272 341
Framingham, Massachusetts 17.5 19.5 125 139
Duluth, Minnesota 17.5 20.4 151 176
Oakland, California 17.5 24.6 734 1,034
Erie, Pennsylvania 17.5 19.7 173 195
Davie, Florida 17.5 24.3 176 244
Brick Township, New Jersey 17.5 25.2 133 192
Scottsdale, Arizona 17.4 27.5 408 644
Hamden, Connecticut 17.4 21.5 107 132
Abilene, Texas 17.4 22.7 212 277
Wichita Falls, Texas 17.4 26.0 183 274
Fort Wayne, Indiana 17.4 19.7 451 511
Toms River Township, New Jersey 17.3 20.7 158 189
Danbury, Connecticut 17.3 17.9 146 151
Parsippany-Troy Hills Township, New Jersey 17.3 21.6 93 116
Harrisonburg, Virginia 17.3 21.2 92 113
Clifton, New Jersey 17.3 20.9 149 180
Mount Pleasant, South Carolina 17.3 20.0 139 161
Commerce City, Colorado 17.3 21.6 92 115
La Crosse, Wisconsin 17.3 20.3 91 107
Amarillo, Texas 17.2 19.7 342 392
Chapel Hill, North Carolina 17.2 20.5 103 123
Fairfield, Connecticut 17.2 18.1 106 112
Conroe, Texas 17.2 23.6 117 161
Kokomo, Indiana 17.1 20.5 98 117
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 17.1 21.6 1,081 1,362
Glendale, Arizona 17.1 22.3 412 535
Des Moines, Iowa 17.1 21.8 360 459
Orland Park, Illinois 17.1 21.5 101 127
Virginia Beach, Virginia 17.0 21.0 772 953
Bowling Green, Kentucky 17.0 22.4 108 142
Everett, Washington 17.0 20.4 183 220
Raleigh, North Carolina 17.0 19.1 761 856
Grapevine, Texas 16.9 25.0 88 130
Auburn, Alabama 16.9 17.9 105 111
Alpharetta, Georgia 16.9 21.7 109 140
Franklin, Tennessee 16.9 20.5 123 149
Howell Township, New Jersey 16.9 20.0 88 104
Sugar Land, Texas 16.9 19.4 150 172
Conway, Arkansas 16.9 23.6 111 155
Mission, Texas 16.9 22.6 141 189
Malden, Massachusetts 16.8 18.8 103 115
Edinburg, Texas 16.8 23.3 143 198
Homestead, Florida 16.8 22.8 112 152
Grand Island, Nebraska 16.8 20.1 87 104
Enid, Oklahoma 16.8 21.0 87 109
Mesa, Arizona 16.8 25.3 789 1,192
Independence, Missouri 16.7 23.7 197 279
Rapid City, South Dakota 16.7 20.5 123 151
Southfield, Michigan 16.6 20.9 122 153
Florissant, Missouri 16.6 20.8 87 109
Edison Township, New Jersey 16.6 21.3 170 218
Chesapeake, Virginia 16.6 21.9 391 516
Lenexa, Kansas 16.6 24.5 86 127
Jacksonville, North Carolina 16.6 21.1 114 145
Bryan, Texas 16.6 20.7 136 170
Boulder, Colorado 16.6 25.4 177 271
Peabody, Massachusetts 16.5 20.1 87 106
Waukesha, Wisconsin 16.5 21.2 118 152
Victoria, Texas 16.4 21.5 110 144
Flagstaff, Arizona 16.4 23.6 114 164
Pocatello, Idaho 16.4 23.9 89 130
Bensalem Township, Pennsylvania 16.4 20.2 99 122
Owensboro, Kentucky 16.4 22.7 96 133
Lakewood, Washington 16.3 18.8 98 113
Cedar Rapids, Iowa 16.3 21.6 212 280
Elgin, Illinois 16.3 21.0 182 235
Tacoma, Washington 16.2 18.0 336 372
Rogers, Arkansas 16.2 22.8 102 143
St. Joseph, Missouri 16.2 21.9 125 169
Weymouth, Massachusetts 16.2 19.2 91 108
Cheektowaga Town, New York 16.2 21.0 127 165
Cheyenne, Wyoming 16.2 19.2 103 122
Long Beach, California 16.2 23.6 771 1,123
Somerville, Massachusetts 16.2 20.3 129 162
Coconut Creek, Florida 16.2 21.7 97 130
Lawrence, Massachusetts 16.1 18.6 127 146
Richmond, California 16.1 24.2 177 265
Midwest City, Oklahoma 16.1 21.5 93 124
Lexington, Kentucky 16.1 18.5 506 581
Broomfield, Colorado 16.1 30.0 103 192
Abington Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania 16.0 20.4 89 114
Smyrna, Georgia 15.9 24.2 89 135
Huntersville, North Carolina 15.9 17.2 84 91
St. Charles, Missouri 15.9 21.9 109 150
Westminster, Colorado 15.9 22.5 180 256
Newport Beach, California 15.8 24.7 139 217
St. Peters, Missouri 15.8 20.2 90 115
Bismarck, North Dakota 15.8 19.9 112 141
Pharr, Texas 15.8 22.1 121 169
San Marcos, Texas 15.7 21.9 99 138
Mesquite, Texas 15.7 20.7 229 302
Lubbock, Texas 15.7 20.5 388 506
Casper, Wyoming 15.6 18.9 96 116
Middletown Township, New Jersey 15.6 19.3 103 127
Janesville, Wisconsin 15.6 17.6 100 113
Pasadena, California 15.6 23.5 221 333
Coral Springs, Florida 15.6 23.0 202 298
Franklin Township, Somerset County, New Jersey 15.6 18.6 104 124
San Angelo, Texas 15.5 18.5 156 186
Lansing, Michigan 15.5 17.8 178 204
Newton, Massachusetts 15.5 20.2 138 180
North Richland Hills, Texas 15.5 26.1 108 182
Mount Prospect, Illinois 15.4 18.7 85 103
Des Plaines, Illinois 15.4 18.6 91 110
Inglewood, California 15.4 20.0 173 225
Wichita, Kansas 15.3 20.0 598 780
Davenport, Iowa 15.3 17.8 158 184
North Port, Florida 15.2 19.5 93 119
Upper Darby Township, Pennsylvania 15.2 17.5 126 145
Gardena, California 15.1 19.2 92 117
Ogden, Utah 15.1 18.8 128 159
Sioux City, Iowa 15.0 18.1 124 149
St. Cloud, Minnesota 15.0 18.9 100 126
Leesburg, Virginia 15.0 17.8 77 91
Longmont, Colorado 15.0 22.3 137 203
San Antonio, Texas 15.0 18.5 2,191 2,708
Appleton, Wisconsin 14.9 18.3 111 136
Kettering, Ohio 14.9 19.8 83 110
Port Orange, Florida 14.8 17.2 88 102
Oshkosh, Wisconsin 14.8 17.1 99 114
Yakima, Washington 14.8 19.6 139 184
El Paso, Texas 14.7 18.4 1,010 1,264
Pembroke Pines, Florida 14.7 19.7 246 330
Normal, Illinois 14.7 16.7 81 92
Bloomington, Illinois 14.6 19.1 116 151
Moore, Oklahoma 14.6 15.5 88 93
Dearborn Heights, Michigan 14.6 17.6 82 99
Missoula, Montana 14.6 17.7 103 125
Grand Rapids, Michigan 14.6 18.6 285 364
Warren, Michigan 14.6 17.4 197 235
Spokane, Washington 14.5 18.8 309 399
Champaign, Illinois 14.5 17.2 124 147
Lee's Summit, Missouri 14.5 20.3 137 192
Irving, Texas 14.5 21.3 342 504
Roswell, Georgia 14.5 20.3 138 194
Portland, Oregon 14.5 18.3 908 1,150
Grand Forks, North Dakota 14.4 17.1 82 97
Greeley, Colorado 14.4 20.0 144 200
Norman, Oklahoma 14.4 19.1 172 229
Great Falls, Montana 14.3 21.6 85 128
Lewisville, Texas 14.3 20.5 150 215
Berkeley, California 14.3 21.6 172 260
Casa Grande, Arizona 14.3 21.4 74 111
Muncie, Indiana 14.2 15.0 100 105
Garland, Texas 14.2 19.6 338 465
Torrance, California 14.2 21.0 212 314
Fayetteville, Arkansas 14.2 19.5 117 161
Santa Cruz, California 14.2 17.3 91 111
Schaumburg, Illinois 14.1 18.8 106 141
Buckeye, Arizona 14.1 18.6 87 115
Piscataway Township, New Jersey 14.1 17.3 84 103
Arvada, Colorado 14.0 19.8 162 228
Sunnyvale, California 14.0 18.6 214 284
Colorado Springs, Colorado 14.0 20.2 635 913
Miramar, Florida 14.0 18.7 194 258
Eau Claire, Wisconsin 14.0 19.5 95 133
Santa Barbara, California 13.9 21.7 128 199
Jackson Township, New Jersey 13.9 17.1 79 97
Richardson, Texas 13.9 22.0 154 244
Lauderhill, Florida 13.8 16.1 99 115
Haverhill, Massachusetts 13.8 15.9 87 100
Burbank, California 13.8 21.3 146 226
St. George, Utah 13.8 20.0 110 160
Ontario, California 13.7 18.9 234 321
Corpus Christi, Texas 13.7 20.0 445 649
Palm Bay, Florida 13.7 20.5 146 218
Idaho Falls, Idaho 13.7 20.6 81 122
Beaverton, Oregon 13.7 17.8 132 172
Pearland, Texas 13.7 16.8 146 179
Kentwood, Michigan 13.6 15.8 70 81
Livonia, Michigan 13.6 18.1 129 171
St. Clair Shores, Michigan 13.6 14.3 82 86
Colonie Town, New York 13.6 18.5 108 147
Auburn, Washington 13.6 16.2 106 126
Sioux Falls, South Dakota 13.6 15.6 234 268
Edmond, Oklahoma 13.5 17.4 122 157
Fresno, California 13.5 18.4 702 959
San Diego, California 13.5 18.2 1,887 2,545
Whittier, California 13.4 19.2 118 169
Avondale, Arizona 13.4 19.2 108 155
O'Fallon, Missouri 13.4 17.4 114 148
Brookhaven, Georgia 13.4 14.7 69 76
Arlington Heights, Illinois 13.4 17.2 102 131
Lakewood Township, New Jersey 13.4 16.6 128 159
Brooklyn Park, Minnesota 13.3 17.2 106 137
Lake Havasu City, Arizona 13.3 20.3 71 108
Bellingham, Washington 13.3 19.9 112 167
West Valley, Utah 13.3 16.1 181 219
National City, California 13.3 18.4 81 112
Chandler, Arizona 13.3 19.6 345 508
Bloomington, Minnesota 13.3 16.8 116 146
Fort Collins, Colorado 13.2 20.9 211 333
Tigard, Oregon 13.2 16.1 68 83
Columbia, Missouri 13.2 16.1 157 191
Overland Park, Kansas 13.2 15.8 247 295
Sacramento, California 13.2 19.4 646 949
Fargo, North Dakota 13.2 15.2 156 180
Federal Way, Washington 13.1 16.2 124 153
Grand Prairie, Texas 13.1 19.5 246 366
Rowlett, Texas 13.1 17.5 77 103
Tinley Park, Illinois 13.1 17.9 75 103
Redmond, Washington 13.0 20.5 79 124
Allen, Texas 13.0 18.0 126 174
Warner Robins, Georgia 12.9 18.4 96 137
Missouri City, Texas 12.9 18.0 94 131
Cape Coral, Florida 12.8 17.7 223 308
Old Bridge Township, New Jersey 12.8 16.3 86 110
Stockton, California 12.8 18.7 389 571
College Station, Texas 12.8 17.9 135 190
Port St. Lucie, Florida 12.7 16.4 224 289
Carmel, Indiana 12.7 15.3 112 135
Hillsboro, Oregon 12.6 17.0 128 172
Royal Oak, Michigan 12.6 14.8 75 88
Palo Alto, California 12.6 21.0 85 142
Shawnee, Kansas 12.6 15.5 82 101
Boise, Idaho 12.6 16.5 275 361
Amherst Town, New York 12.6 14.9 151 179
Midland, Texas 12.5 16.1 166 213
Denton, Texas 12.5 16.2 164 213
Farmington Hills, Michigan 12.5 16.6 102 136
Medford, Oregon 12.5 17.0 99 135
Cedar Park, Texas 12.4 16.8 83 112
Redondo Beach, California 12.4 20.3 85 139
Loveland, Colorado 12.4 18.6 92 138
Nampa, Idaho 12.4 17.9 111 161
Parker, Colorado 12.3 18.6 63 95
Watsonville, California 12.3 16.4 66 88
Reno, Nevada 12.3 14.5 295 347
Plano, Texas 12.3 20.1 348 570
Billings, Montana 12.3 14.6 135 161
Olathe, Kansas 12.2 14.2 165 191
Georgetown, Texas 12.2 18.6 76 116
Bellevue, Washington 12.2 15.4 169 213
Parma, Ohio 12.2 19.0 97 151
Carrollton, Texas 12.2 15.2 159 199
Chino, California 12.2 18.0 105 155
Caldwell, Idaho 12.1 14.8 62 76
Taylor, Michigan 12.1 15.3 74 94
Sandy Springs, Georgia 12.0 13.6 125 141
Troy, Michigan 12.0 17.9 100 150
South San Francisco, California 11.9 16.2 81 110
Rochester, Minnesota 11.9 16.3 134 184
Renton, Washington 11.9 15.0 119 150
Broken Arrow, Oklahoma 11.9 17.0 126 180
Henderson, Nevada 11.8 20.2 334 570
Walnut Creek, California 11.8 16.2 81 111
Concord, California 11.8 16.0 152 206
Cary, North Carolina 11.8 14.1 189 226
Thornton, Colorado 11.8 17.6 157 235
Burnsville, Minnesota 11.8 14.0 73 87
Kennewick, Washington 11.8 13.6 92 106
Goodyear, Arizona 11.7 16.1 92 126
Odessa, Texas 11.7 17.4 139 206
Lincoln, Nebraska 11.7 17.4 324 481
Wheaton, Illinois 11.7 14.7 63 79
Oceanside, California 11.7 15.7 206 276
Glendale, California 11.7 16.8 236 339
Sandy, Utah 11.6 15.0 107 138
Arcadia, California 11.6 15.8 68 93
Santa Clara, California 11.6 16.2 143 200
Flower Mound, Texas 11.6 17.3 82 123
North Las Vegas, Nevada 11.5 17.4 270 409
Sterling Heights, Michigan 11.5 13.2 152 175
Millcreek Township, Erie County, Pennsylvania 11.5 13.9 62 75
Albany, Oregon 11.5 17.0 60 89
Salem, Oregon 11.4 19.2 187 313
Ventura, California 11.4 15.0 126 165
Castle Rock, Colorado 11.4 15.6 66 90
Oxnard, California 11.4 17.3 237 358
Anaheim, California 11.4 16.5 399 577
Gilroy, California 11.4 17.0 61 91
Centennial, Colorado 11.4 14.5 124 158
Riverside, California 11.4 15.9 368 515
Fishers, Indiana 11.4 12.6 101 112
Tulare, California 11.4 17.4 71 109
El Cajon, California 11.4 17.4 118 181
Eugene, Oregon 11.3 19.3 183 312
Bloomington, Indiana 11.3 17.9 95 150
Milpitas, California 11.3 14.4 85 109
Richland, Washington 11.3 14.0 61 76
Monterey Park, California 11.2 15.5 69 96
Mountain View, California 11.2 16.5 90 133
Ramapo Town, New York 11.1 13.6 101 123
Brentwood, California 11.1 13.7 65 80
Wyoming, Michigan 11.1 13.1 84 99
Redlands, California 11.1 16.2 79 115
Tustin, California 11.1 17.1 91 140
Hayward, California 11.1 18.3 174 288
Spokane Valley, Washington 11.1 11.2 102 103
Lodi, California 11.0 15.8 71 102
West Sacramento, California 11.0 14.4 58 76
Kent, Washington 11.0 14.9 140 190
Peoria, Arizona 11.0 16.6 187 283
Pittsburg, California 11.0 13.8 76 96
Iowa City, Iowa 11.0 13.9 82 104
Vancouver, Washington 10.9 12.2 187 208
Santa Maria, California 10.9 15.6 114 163
Kirkland, Washington 10.9 15.1 95 131
Springfield, Oregon 10.9 16.4 66 99
West Bloomfield Township, Michigan 10.9 14.8 72 98
Sparks, Nevada 10.9 15.3 104 147
McKinney, Texas 10.8 13.6 176 222
State College, Pennsylvania 10.7 12.5 62 72
Gresham, Oregon 10.7 13.4 119 149
Bristol Township, Pennsylvania 10.7 11.8 58 64
La Habra, California 10.7 15.8 67 99
Woodland, California 10.7 13.3 62 77
Orange, California 10.7 14.4 150 203
Redding, California 10.6 14.0 98 129
Hawthorne, California 10.6 14.9 94 132
Visalia, California 10.6 15.5 138 202
Montebello, California 10.6 16.0 68 103
San Rafael, California 10.6 14.4 63 86
Alameda, California 10.6 14.2 83 112
La Mesa, California 10.6 15.4 63 92
Frisco, Texas 10.5 15.1 161 231
Eagan, Minnesota 10.5 12.5 70 83
Eden Prairie, Minnesota 10.5 14.3 67 91
Layton, Utah 10.5 14.6 77 107
Novi, Michigan 10.5 14.0 62 83
Bowie, Maryland 10.5 11.5 61 67
Fountain Valley, California 10.5 13.8 60 79
San Mateo, California 10.5 13.7 109 143
Daly City, California 10.4 14.1 112 151
Redwood City, California 10.4 13.4 88 113
Minnetonka, Minnesota 10.4 13.5 54 70
Bakersfield, California 10.4 14.5 388 542
Huntington Beach, California 10.3 16.2 210 330
Fairfield, California 10.3 15.8 116 178
Turlock, California 10.3 15.4 74 111
Burien, Washington 10.3 14.2 52 72
Modesto, California 10.2 14.0 216 295
Novato, California 10.2 14.5 57 81
Edina, Minnesota 10.2 14.2 51 71
Woodbury, Minnesota 10.1 11.6 69 79
Rialto, California 10.1 13.4 105 139
Greece Town, New York 10.1 10.7 98 104
San Leandro, California 10.1 14.8 91 134
Costa Mesa, California 10.0 15.6 114 177
Porterville, California 10.0 14.3 56 80
Apple Valley, Minnesota 10.0 11.6 51 59
West Des Moines, Iowa 10.0 12.8 65 83
Bend, Oregon 10.0 13.1 86 113
Flint, Michigan 10.0 11.5 98 113
Pomona, California 10.0 16.4 154 253
Surprise, Arizona 10.0 14.0 128 180
Hanford, California 9.9 14.6 55 81
Fullerton, California 9.9 14.4 140 203
Greenwood, Indiana 9.9 11.7 55 65
Vacaville, California 9.9 15.4 96 149
Pleasanton, California 9.9 13.9 79 111
Irondequoit Town, New York 9.9 11.9 51 61
Buena Park, California 9.9 14.2 83 119
Citrus Heights, California 9.9 15.2 86 132
San Bernardino, California 9.9 18.2 214 394
Meridian, Idaho 9.9 12.3 90 112
Alhambra, California 9.9 14.9 85 128
Ann Arbor, Michigan 9.9 12.0 117 143
Ankeny, Iowa 9.8 11.3 55 63
Corvallis, Oregon 9.8 16.7 54 92
Coon Rapids, Minnesota 9.8 11.1 61 69
Pasco, Washington 9.8 11.5 69 81
Chico, California 9.8 15.0 88 135
Union City, California 9.8 13.0 73 97
Roseville, California 9.8 14.3 128 187
Petaluma, California 9.8 13.2 59 80
Escondido, California 9.8 13.0 148 198
Livermore, California 9.7 14.8 86 131
Delano, California 9.7 12.9 51 68
Merced, California 9.7 14.0 80 115
Tracy, California 9.6 14.1 83 122
Corona, California 9.6 13.6 157 222
Simi Valley, California 9.6 14.0 122 178
Maple Grove, Minnesota 9.5 11.4 65 78
Downey, California 9.5 12.8 109 147
Westland, Michigan 9.4 12.6 77 103
Huntington Park, California 9.4 15.1 56 90
Colton, California 9.4 14.3 51 78
Plymouth, Minnesota 9.3 11.2 71 85
West Jordan, Utah 9.3 12.4 105 140
Westminster, California 9.3 12.8 86 119
Santa Rosa, California 9.3 13.7 163 241
Glendora, California 9.3 15.7 48 81
Canton Township, Michigan 9.3 13.3 83 119
Clovis, California 9.3 14.9 96 155
Carlsbad, California 9.2 13.3 105 152
Marysville, Washington 9.2 13.0 61 86
Blaine, Minnesota 9.2 11.7 57 73
Shoreline, Washington 9.2 12.4 51 69
El Monte, California 9.1 12.6 107 148
San Jose, California 9.1 12.8 939 1,325
Gilbert, Arizona 9.1 13.6 225 336
Provo, Utah 9.0 13.3 104 153
Santa Ana, California 9.0 15.6 302 527
Fontana, California 8.9 13.2 185 274
Napa, California 8.9 14.1 72 114
Vallejo, California 8.9 12.0 108 145
Rocklin, California 8.8 13.3 54 81
Folsom, California 8.8 11.7 67 89
Orem, Utah 8.7 12.7 81 118
Upland, California 8.7 11.9 67 91
Garden Grove, California 8.7 12.3 154 217
Madera, California 8.7 11.5 56 74
Clinton Township, Michigan 8.7 9.8 87 98
Placentia, California 8.7 11.8 46 62
Lakeville, Minnesota 8.7 10.2 53 62
San Ramon, California 8.5 10.6 65 81
Cathedral City, California 8.5 12.4 46 67
Baldwin Park, California 8.4 11.9 65 92
Davis, California 8.4 13.7 56 92
Antioch, California 8.2 10.4 91 115
Yuba City, California 8.2 11.8 54 78
Chula Vista, California 8.2 11.4 217 303
West Covina, California 8.2 13.8 89 150
Ames, Iowa 8.1 11.5 52 74
South Gate, California 8.1 12.2 78 118
Lehi, Utah 8.0 9.1 47 53
Manteca, California 8.0 11.2 60 84
York Area Regional, Pennsylvania 8.0 8.7 44 48
Irvine, California 7.9 11.5 203 298
Murrieta, California 7.8 11.5 85 126
Fremont, California 7.7 12.0 180 280
Hemet, California 7.7 10.6 65 89
Shelby Township, Michigan 7.7 10.2 60 79
South Jordan, Utah 7.7 8.9 51 59
Salinas, California 7.7 11.1 122 175
Johns Creek, Georgia 7.6 8.5 64 72
Elk Grove, California 7.5 12.3 124 205
Northern York Regional, Pennsylvania 7.2 7.7 49 53
Indio, California 7.1 11.5 62 100
Waterford Township, Michigan 7.1 9.0 52 66
Sammamish, Washington 5.2 6.3 27 33

SOURCE: Governing calculations of 2015 FBI UCR data. The FBI defines officers as employees who “ordinarily carry a firearm and a badge, have full arrest powers, and are paid from governmental funds set aside specifically to pay sworn law enforcement.” Total employee figures include civilian positions, such as dispatchers, clerks and correctional officers. Multiple agencies serving a single jurisdiction are not reflected in per capita totals. Some larger agencies, including the Chicago Police Department, did not report data to the FBI. Charlotte-Mecklenburg data reflect only the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Police Department and exclude the Mecklenburg County Sheriff's Office.