Union Membership State Statistics

 

About 14.5 million workers belonged to unions in 2013, accounting for 11.3 percent of the entire workforce.

The concentration of union workers varies largely across the country, with statistics indicating some states home to far more union members than others. Factors influencing the presence of labor unions include the types of industries employing workers and individual states' right-to-work protections.

The following table lists historical annual average shares of union employees as a percentage of a state's total workforce, according to federal data.

State 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Alabama 9.8% 10.9% 10.1% 10.% 9.2% 10.7%
Alaska 23.5% 22.3% 22.9% 22.1% 22.4% 23.1%
Arizona 8.8% 6.5% 6.4% 6.% 5.1% 5.%
Arkansas 5.9% 4.2% 4.% 4.2% 3.2% 3.5%
California 18.4% 17.2% 17.5% 17.1% 17.2% 16.4%
Colorado 8.% 7.% 6.6% 8.2% 7.8% 7.6%
Connecticut 16.9% 17.3% 16.7% 16.8% 14.% 13.5%
Delaware 13.4% 11.9% 11.4% 10.5% 10.4% 10.3%
District of Columbia 12.2% 10.4% 9.% 8.3% 8.6% 9.3%
Florida 6.4% 5.8% 5.6% 6.3% 5.8% 5.4%
Georgia 3.7% 4.6% 4.% 3.9% 4.4% 5.3%
Hawaii 24.3% 23.5% 21.8% 21.5% 21.6% 22.1%
Idaho 7.1% 6.3% 7.1% 5.1% 4.8% 4.7%
Illinois 16.6% 17.5% 15.5% 16.2% 14.6% 15.8%
Indiana 12.4% 10.6% 10.9% 11.3% 9.1% 9.3%
Iowa 10.6% 11.1% 11.4% 11.2% 10.4% 10.1%
Kansas 7.% 6.2% 6.8% 7.6% 6.8% 7.5%
Kentucky 8.6% 8.6% 8.9% 8.9% 10.% 11.2%
Louisiana 4.6% 5.8% 4.3% 4.5% 6.2% 4.3%
Maine 12.3% 11.7% 11.6% 11.3% 11.5% 11.1%
Maryland 12.6% 12.6% 11.6% 12.4% 10.6% 11.6%
Massachusetts 15.7% 16.6% 14.5% 14.6% 14.4% 13.7%
Michigan 18.8% 18.8% 16.5% 17.5% 16.6% 16.3%
Minnesota 16.1% 15.1% 15.6% 15.1% 14.2% 14.3%
Mississippi 5.3% 4.8% 4.5% 5.% 4.3% 3.7%
Missouri 11.2% 9.4% 9.9% 10.9% 8.9% 8.6%
Montana 12.2% 13.9% 12.7% 13.% 13.9% 13.%
Nebraska 8.3% 9.2% 9.3% 7.9% 6.% 7.3%
Nevada 16.7% 15.7% 15.% 14.6% 14.7% 14.6%
New Hampshire 10.6% 10.8% 10.2% 11.1% 10.5% 9.6%
New Jersey 18.3% 19.3% 17.1% 16.1% 16.1% 16.%
New Mexico 7.2% 6.7% 7.3% 6.8% 6.5% 6.2%
New York 24.9% 25.2% 24.2% 24.1% 23.2% 24.4%
North Carolina 3.5% 3.1% 3.2% 2.9% 2.9% 3.%
North Dakota 6.1% 6.8% 7.4% 6.3% 6.1% 6.4%
Ohio 14.2% 14.2% 13.7% 13.4% 12.6% 12.6%
Oklahoma 6.6% 5.7% 5.5% 6.4% 7.5% 7.5%
Oregon 16.6% 17.% 16.2% 17.1% 15.7% 13.9%
Pennsylvania 15.4% 15.% 14.7% 14.6% 13.5% 12.7%
Rhode Island 16.5% 17.9% 16.4% 17.4% 17.8% 16.9%
South Carolina 3.9% 4.5% 4.6% 3.4% 3.3% 3.7%
South Dakota 5.% 5.5% 5.6% 5.1% 5.6% 4.8%
Tennessee 5.5% 5.1% 4.7% 4.6% 4.8% 6.1%
Texas 4.5% 5.1% 5.4% 5.2% 5.7% 4.8%
Utah 5.8% 6.9% 6.5% 5.8% 5.2% 3.9%
Vermont 10.4% 12.3% 11.8% 12.% 10.7% 10.9%
Virginia 4.1% 4.7% 4.6% 4.6% 4.4% 5.%
Washington 19.8% 20.2% 19.4% 19.% 18.5% 18.9%
West Virginia 13.8% 13.9% 14.8% 13.8% 12.1% 12.7%
Wisconsin 15.% 15.2% 14.2% 13.3% 11.2% 12.3%
Wyoming 7.7% 7.7% 7.4% 7.2% 6.7% 5.7%
Source: BLS, Current Population Survey


Union Representation By State Map

The following map shows states where employees represented by unions account for the highest share of the workforce in 2013, with larger percentages shaded darker. Union representation, in most states, is slightly higher than union membership (a separate measure in the above table). Please zoom out to view data for Alaska and Hawaii.


Source: Current Population Survey, BLS


Statistics indicate union membership among private sector employees has slowly declined for the past several decades. For the public workforce, union membership has remained stable:


 

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