Urban Notebook

Immigrants Help Reverse Baltimore’s Decline

For a few years now, a handful of cities have been trying to position themselves as more immigrant-friendly communities. At a time when some states have adopted tougher immigration laws that can make them less welcoming to foreign-born residents, cities like Detroit and Dayton, Ohio, have actively been trying to attract immigrants in the hope they’ll help drive new economic growth.

MORE: Read the rest of the December issue. READ MORE

Remembering Mayor Menino

Newly elected mayors like to be judged, and generally are judged, on the breadth of their vision. They march into office following campaigns in which they promise to produce world-class schools, dramatic new efficiencies in management and spectacular economic development. They deliver inaugural speeches proclaiming that, given enough energy and creativity, no goal is unreachable.

When they leave office, however, it is a different story. By then, the public and most of the pundits have lost track of what the original promises were, and judge mayors on how well they handled the details -- clearing away snow, repairing the streets, keeping municipal employees on the job and a myriad of other administrative challenges far beneath the lofty rhetoric of Inauguration Day. READ MORE

The Website That Could End Homelessness in Los Angeles

It isn’t easy being homeless anywhere, but it seems especially tough in Los Angeles. Despite the dizzying array of services, Los Angeles County is America’s homeless capital, with more than 52,000 unsheltered individuals sleeping on its streets nightly -- many of them settling inside the dangerous downtown tent city of Skid Row.

Now, a collection of public and private groups wants to end homelessness in the region, and it wants to do it with a digital program first tested in Skid Row in 2013. The “coordinated entry system,” a one-stop website for homeless individuals, will essentially link the homeless to the county’s many social services. The L.A. Housing Authority, the Chamber of Commerce and others have put aside $213 million to pay for the new site as well as for housing vouchers. READ MORE

FHA Policies Discourage Density

After decades of suburban flight, the city is king again. Economists view it as essential for sparking innovation and growth. Environmentalists consider it key to getting people out of their automobiles. And urbanites, many of whom suffered through decades of decline in their cities, view it as a symbol of long-anticipated revitalization. 

But a key part of cities -- their density -- hasn’t always been encouraged by the government, particularly not at the federal level. In fact, many of today’s land use policies hail from the post-World War II era, when planners thought that decentralizing cities would generate middle-class prosperity. This led to policies that directly encouraged sprawl. But perhaps the most pronounced set of policies against density are those pushed by the Federal Housing Administration (FHA). READ MORE

Why Don't More Cities Sell Air Rights?

Public works projects often come at heavy expense. Whether it’s building new schools, municipal halls or other facilities, such projects produce not only upfront costs, but depending on their magnitude, long-term debts. There is, however, a way to mitigate costs, or even make a project more profitable: Sell off the air rights. 

This is an idea that, while holding vast economic potential, is used sparingly in America. Nowadays whenever cities build a central library, to name one example, they usually construct a single-use facility that is only a few stories tall, if that. But what if, before such libraries were built, the air rights -- the undeveloped space above the roofline -- were deregulated and sold off? In expensive and vertically inclined U.S. cities, private developers would pay governments enormous sums for the right to build a high-rise apartment complex or business space above public projects. This would lead to the broad maximization of public land values, and thus to enormous cash windfalls for local governments. READ MORE